Leaders of Brazil
(Federative Republic of Brazil)
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Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website. The site Rulers lists the governors of the states, in two parts, from A to M and from P to Z.

Late parties: PSD: Social Democratic Party (old, 1945-1965); PTB: Brazilian Labour Party (old, 1945-1965); UDN: National Democratic Union (1945-1965); PSP: Progressive Social Party (1945-1965); PSB: Brazilian Socialist Party (old, 1947-1965); ARENA: National Renewal Alliance (1966-1979); MDB: Brazilian Democratic Movement (1966-1979); PDS: Social Democratic Party (1980-1993); PDC: Christian Democratic Party (1945-1965/1985-1993); PTR: Renovating Labour Party (1985-1994); PL: Liberal Party (1985-2006); PFL: Party of the Liberal Front (1985-2007); PRN: Party for National Reconstruction (1989-2000); PRONA: Party for Rebuilding of the National Order (1989-2006); PST: Labour Social Party (?-1994); PSD: Social Democratic Party (new, 1990-2002); PPR: Progressive Reform Party (1993-1995); PP: Progressive Party (old, 1994-1995); PPB: Brazilian Progressive Party (1995-2003, renamed to PP)

Current parties: PCdoB: Communist Party of Brazil (1962/1988); PMDB: Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (1980); PT: Workers' Party (1980); PDT: Democratic Labour Party (1980); PTB: Brazilian Labour Party (new, 1980); PSB: Brazilian Socialist Party (new, 1985); PSC: Social Christian Party (1985); PV: Green Party; PSDB: Party of the Brazilian Social Democracy (1988); PPS: Popular Socialist Party (1992); PTN: National Labour Party (1997); PTC: Christian Labour Party (2000); PP: Progressive Party (new, 2003, previously called PPB); PSOL: Socialism and Freedom Party (2004); PRB: Brazilian Republican Party (2005); PR: Party of the Republic (2006); DEM: Democrats (2007); n/p: non-party


Presidents of the Republic
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas               3 Nov 1930 - 29 Oct 1945 (+1954) n/p (1)
José Linhares                         29 Oct 1945 - 31 Jan 1946 (+1957) n/p           
Eurico Gaspar Dutra                   31 Jan 1946 - 31 Jan 1951 (+1974) military/PSD       
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas              31 Jan 1951 - 24 Aug 1954 (+1954) PTB           
João Fernandes de Campos Café (Filho) 24 Aug 1954 - 31 Jan 1956 (+1970) PTB           
 Carlos Coimbra da Luz                 9 Nov 1954 - 11 Nov 1955 (+1961) PSD (acting for Café)
 Nereu de Oliveira Ramos              11 Nov 1955 - 31 Jan 1956 (+1958) PSD (acting for Café)
Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira      31 Jan 1956 - 31 Jan 1961 (+1976) PSD           
Jânio da Silva Quadros                31 Jan 1961 - 25 Aug 1961 (+1992) PDC
Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli              25 Aug 1961 -  7 Sep 1961 (+1975) PSD (caretaker)
João Belchior Marques Goulart          7 Sep 1961    2 Apr 1964 (+1976) PTB           
Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli               2 Apr 1964 - 15 Apr 1964 (+1975) PSD (caretaker)
Humberto de Alencar Castello Branco   15 Apr 1964 - 15 Mar 1967 (+1967) military           
Artur da Costa e Silva                15 Mar 1967 - 14 Oct 1969 (+1969) military
           -- Triunvirate --          14 Oct 1969 - 30 Oct 1969         military (2)  
Emílio Garrastazú Médici              30 Oct 1969 - 15 Mar 1974 (+1985) military/ARENA
Ernesto (Beckmann) Geisel             15 Mar 1974 - 15 Mar 1979 (+1996) military/ARENA
João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo  15 Mar 1979 - 15 Mar 1985 (+1999) military/ARENA/PDS
José Sarney de Araújo Costa           15 Mar 1985 - 15 Mar 1990         PMDB (3)
Fernando Affonso Collor de Mello      15 Mar 1990 - 29 Dec 1992         PRN (4)          
Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco        29 Dec 1992 -  1 Jan 1995 (+2011) n/p (4)
Fernando Henrique Silva Cardoso        1 Jan 1995 -  1 Jan 2003         PSDB     
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva              1 Jan 2003 -  1 Jan 2011         PT
Dilma Vana Rousseff                    1 Jan 2011 - 31 Aug 2016         PT (5)
Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia       12 May 2016 -                     PMDB (acting to 31 Aug 2016) (5)

Notes:

(1) Getúlio Vargas ruled as chief of the Provisional Government until 20 Jul 1934.
(2) Military Triunvirate made by the ministers of the Army, the Navy and the Air Forces, namely: Admiral Augusto Hamann Rademaker Grünewald (+1985), Army General Aurélio de Lyra Tavares (+1998) and Air Marshal Márcio de Souza e Mello (+1991).
(3) From 15 Mar to 21 Apr 1985 Vice President José Sarney acted as President as the elected President, Tancredo de Almeida Neves (PMDB), being incapacitated, could not take office. Neves died on 21 Apr and one day later, upon approval of the Congress, Sarney took the presidential office definitively.
(4) The Chamber of Deputies voted to begin impeachment proceedings against President Fernando Collor de Mello and suspended him in office on 29 Sep 1992. The Chamber elected Vice President Itamar Franco President of the Republic in acting capacity on 2 Oct. On 29 Dec. Collor resigned and Franco became the incumbent President.
(5) The Chamber of Deputies, on 17 Apr 2016, and then the Senate, on 12 May 2016, voted to begin impeachment proceedings against president Dilma Rousseff and suspended her in office up to 180 days; in the meantime, the Vice President of the Republic, Michel Temer, ruled as acting President. On 31 Aug 2016 the Senate voted to impeach Rousseff, who was definitively removed from office, and Temer became the incumbent President.


Vice Presidents of the Republic
Nereu de Oliveira Ramos               1946-1951 (+1958) PSD
João Fernandes de Campos Café (Filho) 1951-1954 (+1970) PTB
João Belchior Marques Goulart         1956-1961 (+1976) PTB
José Maria de Alkmim                  1964-1967 (+1974) ARENA
Pedro Aleixo                          1967-1969 (+1975) ARENA 
Augusto Hamann Rademaker Grünewald    1969-1974 (+1985) military/ARENA
Adalberto Pereira dos Santos          1974-1979 (+1984) military/ARENA
Antônio Aureliano Chaves de Mendonça  1979-1985 (+2003) ARENA/PDS/PFL
José Sarney de Araújo Costa           1985              PMDB
Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco        1990-1992 (+2011) PRN
Marco Antônio de Oliveira Maciel      1995-2003         PFL
José de Alencar Gomes da Silva        2003-2011 (+2011) PL/PRB
Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia       2011-2016         PMDB

Chairmen of the Chamber of Deputies
Honório Fernandes Monteiro            1946-1948 (+1968) PSD
Samuel Vital Duarte                   1948-1949 (+1979) PSD
Carlos Cirilo (Júnior)                1949-1951 (+1965) PSD
Nereu de Oliveira Ramos               1951-1955 (+1958) PSD 
Carlos Coimbra da Luz                 1955      (+1961) PSD
José Antônio Flores da Cunha          1955-1956 (+1959) UDN (acting) 
Ulysses Silveira Guimarães            1956-1958 (+1992) PSD
Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli              1958-1965 (+1975) PSD
Olavo Billac Pinto                    1965-1966 (+1985) ARENA 
Adauto Lúcio Cardoso                  1966      (+1974) ARENA
João Baptista Ramos                   1966-1968 (+2002) ARENA (acting to 1967)
José Bonifácio Lafayette de Andrada   1969-1970 (+1976) ARENA
Geraldo Freire da Silva               1970-1971 (+2002) ARENA
Ernesto Pereira Lopes                 1971-1973 (+1993) ARENA
Flávio Portela Marcílio               1973-1975 (+1992) ARENA 
Célio de Oliveira Borja               1975-1977         ARENA
Marco Antônio de Oliveira Maciel      1977-1979         ARENA
Flávio Portela Marcílio               1979-1981 (+1992) ARENA/PDS
Nélson Marchezan                      1981-1983 (+2002) PDS
Flávio Portela Marcílio               1983-1985 (+1992) PDS	
Ulysses Silveira Guimarães            1985-1989 (+1992) PMDB
Antônio Paes de Andrade               1989-1991 (+2015) PMDB
Ibsen Valls Pinheiro                  1991-1993         PMDB
Inocêncio Gomes de Oliveira           1993-1995         PFL
Luís Eduardo Maron de Magalhães       1995-1997 (+1998) PFL 
Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia       1997-2001         PMDB
Aécio Neves da Cunha                  2001-2003         PSDB
João Paulo Cunha                      2003-2005         PT
Severino José Cavalcanti Ferreira     2005              PP
José Thomaz da Silva Nonô Netto       2005              PFL (acting)
José Aldo Rebelo Figueiredo           2005-2007         PCdoB
Arlindo Chinaglia (Junior)            2007-2009         PT
Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia       2009-2010         PMDB
Marco Aurelio Spall Maia              2010-2013         PT
Henrique Eduardo Lyra Alves           2013-2015         PMDB
Eduardo Cosentino da Cunha            2015-2016         PMDB 
Waldir Maranhão Cardoso               2016              PP (interim)
Rodrigo Felinto Ibarra Epitácio Maia  2016-             DEM

Chairmen of the Federal Senate
Nereu de Oliveira Ramos               1946-1951 (+1958) PSD 
João Fernandes de Campos Café (Filho) 1951-1954 (+1970) PTB
Alexandre Marcondes Machado (Filho)   1954-1955 (+1974) PTB (acting)
Nereu de Oliveira Ramos               1955      (+1958) PSD (acting) 
Apolônio Jorge de Farias Salles       1955-1956 (+1982) PSD (acting)   
João Belchior Marques Goulart         1956-1961 (+1976) PTB
Auro Soares de Moura Andrade          1961-1968 (+1982) PSD
Gilberto Marinho                      1968      (+1985) (acting)
João Cleophas de Oliveira             1970-1971 (+1987) ARENA 
Petrônio Portella Nunes               1971-1973 (+1980) ARENA
Filinto Strubling Müller              1973      (+1973) ARENA
Paulo Francisco Torres                1973-1975 (+2000) ARENA
José de Magalhães Pinto               1975-1977 (+1996) ARENA
Petrônio Portella Nunes               1977-1979 (+1980) ARENA
Luiz Viana (Filho)                    1979-1981 (+1990) ARENA/PDS
Jarbas Gonçalves Passarinho           1981-1983 (+2016) PDS
Nilo de Souza Coelho                  1983      (+1983) PDS
Moacyr Dalla                          1983-1984 (+2006) PDS
José Manoel Fontanillas Fragelli      1984-1987 (+2010) PMDB
Humberto Coutinho de Lucena           1987-1989 (+1998) PMDB
Nélson de Sousa Carneiro              1989-1991 (+1996) PMDB
Carlos Mauro Cabral Benevides         1991-1993         PMDB
Humberto Coutinho de Lucena           1993-1995 (+1998) PMDB
José Sarney de Araújo Costa           1995-1997         PMDB
Antônio Carlos Peixoto de Magalhães   1997-2001 (+2007) PFL
Jáder Fontenelle Barbalho             2001              PMDB
Ramez Tebet                           2001-2003 (+2006) PMDB
José Sarney de Araújo Costa           2003-2005         PMDB
José Renan Vasconcelos Calheiros      2005-2007         PMDB
Garibaldi Alves (Filho)               2007-2009         PMDB
José Sarney de Araújo Costa           2009-2013         PMDB
José Renan Vasconcelos Calheiros      2013-2017         PMDB
Eunício Lopes de Oliveira             2017-             PMDB

Ministers of External Relations
Pedro Leão Velloso                    1944-1946 (+1947)
João Neves da Fontoura                1946      (+1963)
Samuel de Souza Leão Gracie           1946      (+1967) (acting)
Raul Fernandes                        1946-1951 (+1968)
João Neves da Fontoura                1951-1953 (+1963)
Mário de Pimentel Brandão             1953      (+1956)
Vicente Ráo                           1953-1954 (+1978)
Raul Fernandes                        1954-1955 (+1968)
José Carlos de Macedo Soares          1955-1958 (+1968)
Francisco Negrão de Lima              1958-1959 (+1981)
Horácio Lafer                         1959-1961 (+1965)
Afonso Arinos de Mello Franco         1961      (+1990)
Francisco de San Tiago Dantas         1961-1962 (+1964)
Afonso Arinos de Mello Franco         1962      (+1990)
Hermes Lima                           1962-1963 (+1978)
Evandro Cavalcânti Lins e Silva       1963      (+2002) 
João Augusto de Araújo Castro         1963-1964 (+1975)
Vasco Tristão Leitão da Cunha         1964-1966 (+1984)
Juracy Montenegro Magalhães           1966-1967 (+2001)
José de Magalhães Pinto               1967-1969 (+1996)
Mário Gibson Alves Barboza            1969-1974 (+2007)
Antônio Azeredo da Silveira           1974-1979 (+1990)
Ramiro Elísio Saraiva Guerreiro       1979-1985 (+2011)
Olavo Egydio de Sousa Aranha Setúbal  1985-1986 (+2008)
Roberto Costa de Abreu Sodré          1986-1990 (+1999)
José Francisco Rezek                  1990-1992        
Celso Lafer                           1992              
Fernando Henrique Silva Cardoso       1992-1993        Luiz Felipe Palmeira Lampreia         1993      (+2016) (acting)
Celso Luiz Nunes Amorim               1993-1995         
Luiz Felipe Palmeira Lampreia         1995-2001 (+2016)        
Luiz Felipe de Seixas Corrêa          2001              (acting)          
Celso Lafer                           2001-2003         
Celso Luiz Nunes Amorim               2003-2011
Antonio de Aguiar Patriota            2011-2013
Luiz Alberto Figueiredo Machado       2013-2015
Mauro Luiz Lecker Vieira              2015-2016
José Serra                            2016-2017
Marcos Bezerra Abbott Galvão          2017              (interim)  
Aloysio Nunes Ferreira Filho          2017-            

(Source: Rulers, by Ben Schemmel)
Defeated presidential candidates
1945  1st Eduardo Gomes                          UDN   (+1981)        
      2nd Iedo Fiúza                             PCB   (+1975)

1950  1st Eduardo Gomes                          UDN   (+1981)
      2nd Cristiano Machado                      PSD   (+1953)

1955  1st Juarez do Nascimento Fernandes Távora  UDN   (+1975)
      2nd Adhemar Pereira de Barros              PSP   (+1969)

1960  1st Henrique Batista Duffles Teixeira Lott UDN   (+1984)
      2nd Adhemar Pereira de Barros              PSP   (+1969) 

1989  1st Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva              PT
      2nd Leonel de Moura Brizola                PDT   (+2004)     
      3rd Mário Covas (Júnior)                   PSDB  (+2001)

1994  1st Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva              PT
      2nd Enéas Ferreira Carneiro                PRONA (+2007)
      3rd Orestes Quércia                        PMDB  (+2010)

1998  1st Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva              PT
      2nd Ciro Ferreira Gomes                    PPS  
      3rd Enéas Ferreira Carneiro                PRONA (+2007)

2002  1st José Serra                             PSDB
      2nd Anthony W. Garotinho de Oliveira       PSB
      3rd Ciro Ferreira Gomes                    PPS

2006  1st Geraldo José Rodrigues Alckmin         PSDB
      2nd Heloísa Helena Lima de Moraes          PSOL
      3rd Cristovam R. Cavalcanti Buarque        PDT

2010  1st José Serra                             PSDB
      2nd Maria Osmarina Marina Silva            PV            
      3rd Plinio Soares de Arruda Sampaio        PSOL

2014  1st Aécio Neves da Cunha                   PSDB
      2nd Maria Osmarina Marina Silva            PSB
      3rd Luciana Krebs Genro                    PSOL 

Presidents of PT
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva        1980-1987 
Olívio de Oliveira Dutra         1987-1990 
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva        1990-1995 
José Dirceu de Oliveira e Silva  1995-2002  
José Genoino Guimarães Neto      2002-2005      
Tarso Fernando Herz Genro        2005      (interim)
Ricardo José Ribeiro Berzoini    2005-2006 
Marco Aurélio Garcia             2006-2007 (interim)
Ricardo José Ribeiro Berzoini    2007-2010
José Eduardo de Barros Dutra     2010-2011 (+2015)
Rui Goethe da Costa Falcão       2011-

PT was founded on 10 Feb 1980 (registered 11 Feb 1982).


Presidents of PFL and DEM
Salvador Jorge Konder Bornhausen      1985-1986 
Guilherme Gracindo Soares Palmeira    1986-1987 
Marco Antônio de Oliveira Maciel      1987-1989 
Hugo Napoleão do Rego Neto            1989-1993 
Salvador Jorge Konder Bornhausen      1993-2007
Rodrigo Felinto Ibarra Epitácio Maia  2007-2011 
José Agripino Maia                    2011-

PFL was founded on 24 Jan 1985 (registered 11 Sep 1986) by splinters of PDS. The party was declared extinct and replaced by the new DEM on 28 Mar 2007.


Presidents of MDB and PMDB
 
Oscar Passos                     1966-1972 (+1994)
Ulysses Silveira Guimarães       1972-1991 (+1992)
Orestes Quércia                  1991-1993 (+2010)
Luiz Henrique da Silveira        1993-1995 (+2015)
Antônio Paes de Andrade          1995-1998 (+2015)
Jáder Fontenelle Barbalho        1998-2001 
Luís Alberto Maguito Vilela      2001      (interim)
Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia  2001-
 Valdir Raupp de Matos           2011-2016 (acting for Temer)
 Romero Jucá (Filho)             2016-     (acting for Temer)

MDB was founded on 24 Mar 1966 to serve as the opposition party in the two-party system established by the military regime. MDB was disbanded by decree on 27 Nov 1979 with a view of reintroducing the multiparty system and the new PMDB was founded on 15 Jan 1980 (registered 30 Jun 1981).


Presidents of PSDB
André Franco Montoro             1989-1991 (+1999)
Tasso Ribeiro Jereissati         1991-1994 
João Pimenta da Veiga (Filho)    1994-1995 
Artur da Távola                  1995-1996 (+2008)
Teotônio Brandão Vilela (Filho)  1996-2001 
José Aníbal Peres de Pontes      2001-2003
José Serra                       2003-2005 
Eduardo Brandão de Azeredo       2005  
Tasso Ribeiro Jereissati         2005-2007 
Severino Sérgio Estelita Guerra  2007-2013 (+2014)
Aécio Neves da Cunha             2013-

PSDB was founded on 25 Jun 1988 (registered 24 Aug 1989) by splinters of PMDB.


Presidents of PDS, PPR, PPB and PP
José Sarney de Araújo Costa        1983-1984 
Paulo Salim Maluf                   ?  -1993 
Espiridião Amin Helou (Filho)      1993-1997 
Paulo Salim Maluf                  1997-2003 
Pedro da Silva Corrêa de Oliveira  2003-2005    
Nélio Silveira Dias                2005-2007 (+2007)
Francisco Oswaldo Neves Dornelles  2007-

History: ARENA party is launched on 4 Apr 1966 by former members of two parties disbanded by military decree effective on 27 Oct 1965: UDN (founded 7 Apr 1945) and PSD (founded 17 Jul 1945); ARENA ceases to exist on 29 Nov 1979; former ARENA members found the PDS on 31 Jan 1980; the PPR is launched on 4 Apr 1993 (registered 8 Jun 1993) as the merger of the PDS and the PDC; the PPB is founded on 14 Sep 1995 (registered 16 Nov 1995) as the merger of the PPR and the PP (which appeared in 1994 as the merger of the PTR and the PST); the PPB is renamed to Progressive Party (PP) on 4 Apr 2003.


Presidents of PL and PR
Álvaro Bastos do Valle         1985-2000 (+2000)
Valdemar Costa Neto            2000-2005   
Sérgio Victor Tamer             ?  -2010
Alfredo Pereira do Nascimento  2010-

PL was founded by splinters of PFL on 27 Jun 1985 (registered 25 Feb 1988). On 24 Oct 2006 it merged with PRONA to create the PR


Presidents of PTB
Old PTB
Paulo Baeta Neves                     1945-1948
Joaquim Pedro Salgado (Filho)         1948-1950 (+1950) (acting)  
Danton Neves Coelho                   1950-1951 (+1961) (acting)
Dinarte Dornelles                     1951-1952
João Belchior Marques Goulart         1952-1964 (+1976) 
José Ermírio de Moraes                1964-1965 (+1973) 
Lutero Sarmanho Vargas                1965      (+1989)

New PTB
Ivete Vargas Tatsch                   1980-1984 (+1984)
Ricardo Ribeiro                       1984
Luiz Gonzaga de Paiva Muniz           1984-1993 (+1993)
Manoel Antonio Rodrigues Palma        1993-1994
José Eduardo de Andrade Vieira        1994-1999
José Carlos de Castro Martínez        1999-2003 (+2003)
Roberto Jefferson Monteiro Francisco  2003-2005 
Flávio de Castro Martinez             2005-2006         (acting)
Roberto Jefferson Monteiro Francisco  2006-2014
Cristiane Brasil Francisco            2014-

The original PTB was founded on 15 May 1945 by Getúlio Vargas and was disbanded by military decree on 27 Oct 1965. In May 1980 the new PTB was established (registered 3 Nov 1981). The PSD (registered 16 Mar 1990) merged into the PTB on 15 Dec 2002.


Presidents of PSB
Old PSB
João Mangabeira                 1947-1964 (+1964)      

New PSB
Antônio Houaiss                 1985-1986 (+1999)
Jamil Haddad                    1986-1993 (+2009)
Miguel Arraes de Alencar        1993-2005 (+2005)
Eduardo Henrique Accioly Campos 2005-2014 (+2014)
Roberto Átila Amaral Vieira     2014-

The original PSB was founded on 6 Aug 1947 and was disbanded by military decree on 27 Oct 1965. On 13 Jul 1985 the new PSB was established (registered 1 Jul 1988).


Presidents of PDT
Leonel de Moura Brizola  1980-2004 (+2004)
Carlos Roberto Lupi      2004-    

PDT was founded on 6 Jun 1980 (registered 10 Nov 1981).

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