Leaders Cambodia
(Kingdom of Cambodia)
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Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website.

Political milestones: 12 Mar 1945: independence from France of the Kingdom of Cambodia proclaimed under Japanese occupation; 8 Nov 1949: Associated State within the French Union; 9 Nov 1953: effective independence of the Kingdom of Cambodia; 9 Oct 1970: Khmer Republic; 5 Jan 1976: Democratic Kampuchea (retaining UN recognition to 20 Nov 1991); 7 Jan 1979: People's Republic of Kampuchea (not recognized by UN); 7 Jan 1979 to 26 Sep 1989: Vietnamese occupation; 1 May 1989: State of Cambodia; 15 Mar 1992 to 26 Sep 1993: administration of the UN Transitional Authority iN Cambodia (UNTAC) 24 Sep 1993: Kingdom of Cambodia

Parties: FNLPK: Khmer People's National Liberation Front FUNCINPEC: National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia FUNK: National United Front of Kampuchea (coalition of Sihanoukists and Khmer Rouge, 1970-1976) FUNSK: Kampuchean National United Front for National Salvation (PRPK-led coalition, 1979-1981) KKP: Khmer Renovation Party (Kanakpak Khemara Ponnakar) KP: Democratic Party (Krom Pracheathipodei ) KPK: Cambodian People's Party (Kanakpak Pracheachon Kâmpuchéa, PRPK to 1991) KS: Free Khmer (Khmer Serei) PCK: Communist Party of Kampuchea (first known publicly as Angkar Loeu, or High Organization, actually Khmer Rouge, from 29 Sep 1977 it was officially announced to be the PCK) PKD: Party of Democratic Kampuchea (formerly PCK) PRPK: Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party (1981-1991) RNC: Cambodian National Resistance (rebel military coalition) SRN: People’s Socialist Community (Sangkum Reastr Niyum) SSR: Social Republican Party (Sangkum Sathéaranak Râth )


Heads of State
Kings
Norodom Sihanouk         26 Apr 1941 -  2 Mar 1955 (+2012)        
Norodom Suramarit         3 Mar 1955 -  3 Apr 1960 (+1960)    

Heads of State
Chuop Hell                3 Apr 1960 -  6 Apr 1960 (+1975) SRN (acting)
Prince Sisovath Monireth  6 Apr 1960 - 13 Jun 1960 (+1975) n/p (chairman Council of Regency)
Chuop Hell               13 Jun 1960 - 20 Jun 1960 (+1975) SRN (acting)
Prince Norodom Sihanouk  20 Jun 1960 - 18 Mar 1970 (+2012) SRN (1)
Cheng Heng               18 Mar 1970 - 10 Mar 1972 (+1996) SRN (acting to 9 Oct 1970)
Lon Nol                  10 Mar 1972 - 14 Mar 1972 (+1985) military

Presidents of the Republic
Lon Nol                  14 Mar 1972 - 12 Apr 1975 (+1985) military/SSR
 Saukham Khoy             1 Apr 1975 - 12 Apr 1975 (+2008) SSR (acting for Lon Nol)
Sak Suthsakan            12 Apr 1975 - 17 Apr 1975 (+1994) military (acting)

Head of State
Prince Norodom Sihanouk  17 Apr 1975 - 11 Apr 1976 (+2012) FUNK

President of the State Presidium
Khieu Samphan            11 Apr 1976 -  7 Jan 1979         PCK (Khmer Rouge)

President of the People's Revolutionary Council
Heng Samrin               7 Jan 1979 - 27 Jun 1981         FUNSK, PRPK

Chairmen of the Council of State
Heng Samrin              27 Jun 1981 -  6 Apr 1992         KPK (2)
Chea Sim                  6 Apr 1992 - 14 Jun 1993 (+2015) KPK  
 
Chairman of the Supreme National Council (SNC) and head of the State 
Prince Norodom Sihanouk  23 Oct 1991 - 24 sep 1993 (+2012) FUNCINPEC, n/p (3)

King
Norodom Sihanouk         24 Sep 1993 -  7 Oct 2004 (+2012)         
Chairman of the Senate
Chea Sim                  7 Oct 2004 - 14 Oct 2004 (+2014) KPK (acting head of State)

King
Norodom Sihamoni         14 Oct 2004 -         

(1) Queen Sisovath Monivong Kossomak Nearireath ruled together with her husband King Norodom Suramarit from 3 Mar 1955 to his death on 3 Apr 1960 as virtual co-head of State. When her son, Prince Norodom Sihanouk, ruled as chief of State (20 Jun 1960 to 18 Mar 1970), as the throne was declared vacant, she served as ceremonial head of State and Symbol of the Crown.

(2) The Council of State, supreme executive organ of the People's Republic of Kampuchea and then of the State of Cambodia, transferred powers to the Supreme National Council on 23 Oct 1991 (see below for details). On 14 Jun 1993 the elected Constituent Assembly was convened and the Council of State handed over the remaining state powers, ceasing to exist.

(3) Sihanouk chaired the SNC from 16 Jul 1991, but this office was not empowered as the unique legitimate body and source of authority and sovereignty up to 23 Oct 1991, date of signing of the Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict at the Paris peace Conference. On 20 Nov 1991 Sihanouk took over in Phnom Penh with the style "head of the State" with non-partisan condition. He continued as SNC chairman to his reinstatement as reigning King on 24 Sep 1993.


Heads of Government
Prime Ministers
Norodom Sihanouk             18 Mar 1945 - 13 Aug 1945 (+2012) n/p
Son Ngoc Thanh               14 Aug 1945 - 16 Oct 1945 (+1977) n/p    
Prince Sisovath Monireth     17 Oct 1945 - 15 Dec 1946 (+1975) n/p
Prince Sisovath Youtevong    15 Dec 1946 - 25 Jul 1947 (+1947) KP
Prince Sisovath Vatchayavong 25 Jul 1947 - 20 Feb 1948 (+1972) KP
Chhean Vam                   20 Feb 1948 - 14 Aug 1948 (+2000) KP
Penn Nouth                    7 Sep 1948 - 21 Jan 1949 (+1985  KP
Yem Sambaur                  12 Feb 1949 - 20 Sep 1949 (+1989) KP
Ieu Koeus                    20 Sep 1949 - 29 Sep 1949 (+1950) KP              
Yem Sambaur                  29 Sep 1949 - 28 Apr 1950 (+1989) KP
Prince Norodom Sihanouk      28 Apr 1950 - 30 May 1950 (+2012) n/p 
Prince Sisovath Monipong      1 Jun 1950 -  3 Mar 1951 (+1956) KKP
Oum Chheang Sun               3 Mar 1951 - 12 Oct 1951         n/p
Huy Kanthoul                 13 Oct 1951 - 16 Jun 1952 (+1991) KP 
Prince Norodom Sihanouk      16 Jun 1952 - 24 Jan 1953 (+2012) n/p  
Penn Nouth                   24 Jan 1953 - 22 Nov 1953 (+1985) KP
Chan Nak                     23 Nov 1953 -  7 Apr 1954 (+1954) n/p
Prince Norodom Sihanouk       7 Apr 1954 - 18 Apr 1954 (+2012) n/p
Penn Nouth                   18 Apr 1954 - 26 Jan 1955 (+1985) KP
Leng Ngeth                   26 Jan 1955 -  3 Oct 1955 (+1975) KP
Prince Norodom Sihanouk       3 Oct 1955 -  5 Jan 1956 (+2012) SRN        
Oum Chheang Sun               5 Jan 1956 - 29 Feb 1956         SRN  
Prince Norodom Sihanouk       1 Mar 1956 - 24 Mar 1956 (+2012) SRN
Khim Tit                      3 Apr 1956 - 29 Jul 1956 (+1975) SRN
Prince Norodom Sihanouk      15 Sep 1956 - 15 Oct 1956 (+2012) SRN
San Yun                      25 Oct 1956 -  9 Apr 1957 (+1974) SRN 
Prince Norodom Sihanouk       9 Apr 1957 -  7 Jul 1957 (+2012) SRN
Sim Var                      26 Jul 1957 - 11 Jan 1958 (+1989) SRN
Ek Yi Oun                    11 Jan 1958 - 17 Jan 1958         SRN    
Penn Nouth                   17 Jan 1958 - 10 Apr 1958 (+1985) SRN
Sim Var                      29 Apr 1958 - 10 Jul 1958 (+1989) SRN 
Prince Norodom Sihanouk      10 Jul 1958 - 19 Apr 1960 (+2012) SRN
Pho Proeung                  19 Apr 1960 - 28 Jan 1961 (+1975) n/p 
Penn Nouth                   28 Jan 1961 - 17 Nov 1961 (+1985) SRN
Prince Norodom Sihanouk      17 Nov 1961 -  6 Aug 1962 (+2012) SRN
Nhiek Tioulong               13 Feb 1962 -  6 Aug 1962 (+1996) SRN (acting for Sihanouk)
Chau Sen Cocsal Chhum         6 Aug 1962 -  6 Oct 1962 (+2009) SRN
Prince Norodom Kantol         6 Oct 1962 - 25 Oct 1966 (+1976) SRN 
Lon Nol                      25 Oct 1966 -  2 May 1967 (+1985) SRN/military
Son Sann                      2 May 1967 - 30 Jan 1968 (+2000) SRN
Penn Nouth                   30 Jan 1968 - 14 Aug 1969 (+1985) SRN
Lon Nol                      14 Aug 1969 - 10 Mar 1972 (+1985) SRN/military
Prince Sisovath Sirik Matak   6 May 1971 - 18 Mar 1972 (+1975) n/p (acting for Lon Nol to 10 Mar 1972)
Son Ngoc Thanh               18 Mar 1972 - 14 Oct 1972 (+1977) KS
Hang Thun Hak                14 Oct 1972 - 16 May 1973 (+1975) SSR 
In Tam                       16 May 1973 - 26 Dec 1973 (+2006) SSR
Long Boreth                  26 Dec 1973 - 17 Apr 1975 (+1975) SSR
Penn Nouth                   17 Apr 1975 -  4 Apr 1976 (+1985) FUNK
Khieu Samphan                 4 Apr 1976 - 13 May 1976         PCK (Khmer Rouge)
Pol Pot                      13 May 1976 -  7 Jan 1979 (+1998) PCK (Khmer Rouge)

President of the People's Revolutionary Council
Heng Samrin                   7 Jan 1979 - 27 Jun 1981         FUNSK, PRPK

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
Pen Sovan                    27 Jun 1981 -  5 Dec 1981 (+2016) PRPK 
Chan Sy                       5 Dec 1981 - 26 Dec 1984 (+1984) PRPK (acting to 9 Feb 1982)
Hun Sen                      14 Jan 1985 -  2 Jul 1993         PRPK, KPK

Co-equal Prime Ministers of the Provisional National Government
Prince Norodom Ranariddh +                                     FUNCINPEC 
Hun Sen                    2 Jul 1993 - 21 Sep 1993            KPK

1st Prime Ministers of the Royal Government
Prince Norodom Ranariddh     21 Sep 1993 -  6 Jul 1997         FUNCINPEC                  
Ung Huot                     16 Jul 1997 - 30 Nov 1998         FUNCINPEC

2nd Prime Minister of the Royal Government
Hun Sen                      21 Sep 1993 - 30 Nov 1998         KPK

Prime Minister of the Royal Government
Hun Sen                      30 Nov 1998 -                     KPK

Governments in rebellion
1) Royal Government of National Union of Kampuchea (GRUNK, 1970-1976) (4)

Head of State
Prince Norodom Sihanouk       5 May 1970 - 17 Apr 1975 (+2012) FUNK

Prime Minister
Penn Nouth                    5 May 1970 - 17 Apr 1975 (+1985) FUNK 

Deputy Prime Minister
Khieu Samphan                 5 May 1970 - 17 Apr 1975         FUNK

2) Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (GCKD, 1982-1990) and National Government of Cambodia (GNC, 1990-1993) (5) 

President
Prince Norodom Sihanouk      22 Jun 1982 -  2 Jul 1993 (+2012) FUNCINPEC/RNC 

Vice President
Khieu Samphan                22 Jun 1982 -  2 Jul 1993         PKD/RNC

Prime Minister
Son Sann                     22 Jun 1982 -  2 Jul 1993 (+2000) FNLPK/RNC
(4) The GRUNK stood in rebellion against the regime of the Khmer Republic and in Beijing exile from 5 May 1970 (following the 18 Mar coup d'etat staged by PM Lon Nol) until 17 Apr 1975 (conquest of Phnom Penh by Khmer Rouge guerrillas); it continued to the proclamation of the State of Democratic Kampuchea on 5 Jan 1976.

(5) The GCKD and his successor since 3 Feb 1990, the GNC, retained the United Nations recognition from the previous State of Democratic Kampuchea (1976-1979).


Leaders of PRPK and KPK
First Secretary of PRPK
Pen Sovan                     5 Jan 1979 - 29 May 1981 (+2016)

General Secretaries of PRPK
Pen Sovan                    29 May 1981 -  5 Dec 1981 (+2016)         
Heng Samrin                   5 Dec 1981 - 17 Oct 1991    

Chairmen of the KPK
Chea Sim                     17 Oct 1991 -  8 Jun 2015 (+2015)
Hun Sen                       8 Jun 2015 - 
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