Leaders of the Council of Europe (CoE)
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Note: the Council of Europe (CoE) was established by the Treaty of London on May 5, 1949.

Secretaries-general

Jacques Camille Paris   11 Aug 1949 - 17 Sep 1953 (+1953) France
Léon Marchal            21 Sep 1953 - 24 Sep 1956 (+1956) France   
Lodovico Benvenuti      15 Sep 1957 - 15 Mar 1964 (+1966) Italy 
Peter Smithers          16 Mar 1964 - 15 Sep 1969 (+2006) UK             
Lujo Toncic-Sorinj      16 Sep 1969 - 16 Sep 1974 (+2005) Austria
Georg Kahn-Ackermann    17 Sep 1974 - 17 Sep 1979 (+2008) West Germany
Franz Karasek            1 Oct 1979 -  1 Oct 1984 (+1986) Austria
Marcelino Oreja Aguirre  1 Oct 1984 -  1 Jun 1989         Spain
Catherine Lalumière      1 Jun 1989 - 31 May 1994         France
Daniel Tarschys         20 Jun 1994 -  1 Sep 1999         Sweden
Walter Schwimmer         1 Sep 1999 -  1 Sep 2004         Austria
Terry Davis              1 Sep 2004 -  1 Sep 2009         United Kingdom  
Maud de Boer-Buquicchio  1 Sep 2009 -  1 Oct 2009         Netherlands (acting)  
Thorbjørn Jagland        1 Oct 2009 -                     Norway

Presidents of the European Court of Human Rights
Arnold Duncan McNair    21 Jan 1959 -  3 May 1965 (+1975) United Kingdom
René Cassin             20 May 1965 - 15 Jun 1968 (+1976) France
Henri Rolin             27 Sep 1968 -  5 May 1971 (+1973) Belgium
Humphrey Waldock         5 May 1971 - 21 Jan 1974 (+1981) United Kingdom
Giorgio Balladore        8 May 1974 -  9 Dec 1980 (+1980) Italy
Gérard J. Wiarda        30 Jan 1981 - 30 May 1985 (+1988) Netherlands
Rolv Ryssdal            30 May 1985 - 18 Feb 1998 (+1998) Norway
Rudolf Bernhardt        24 Mar 1998 - 31 Oct 1998         Germany
Luzius Wildhaber         1 Nov 1998 - 18 Jan 2007         Switzerland
Jean-Paul Costa         19 Jan 2007 -  3 Nov 2011         France
Nicolas Bratza           4 Nov 2011 - 31 Oct 2012         United Kingdom
Dean Spielmann           1 Nov 2012 -                     Luxembourg

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