Leaders of Estonia
(Republic of Estonia)
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Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website. See also the former USSR for data before 1990 as well as a detailed page on Estonian Governments since 1990 to know more about the ruling parties.

Former parties and coalitions: EKP: Estonian Communist Party ELDP: Estonian Liberal Democratic Party (1990-1994 > Reformierakond) EM: Estonian Rural Union (?-2000 > ERL) EME: Estonian Country People's Party (1994-1999 > ERL) EMK: Estonian Rural Center Party (1990-1996 > Mõõdukad) EPPE: Estonian Pensioners' and Families' League (?-2000 > ERL) ERL (Eestimaa Rahvaliit): People's Union of Estonia (1999-2012 > EKRE) ERSP: Estonian National Independence Party (1988-1995 > Isamaaliit) ESDP: Estonian Social Democratic Party (1990-1996 > Mõõdukad) Isamaaliit: Pro Patria Union (1995-2006 > IRL) KMÜ: Coalition Party and Rural Union (five-party coalition, 1995-1999) Koonderakond: Estonian Coalition Party, a.k.a KMÜ-K when part of late KMÜ (1994-2001) Liberaalid: Liberals (1994, caucus > Reformierakond) Mõõdukad: Moderates (1996-2004, renamed to SDE) Parempool: Rightists (caucus) Rahvaerakond: Estonian People's Party (1998-1999 > Mõõdukad) Rahvarinne: Popular Front of Estonia (1989-1992) ResP: Union for the Republic-Res Publica (2001-2006 > IRL) RK Isamaa: National Coalition Party Pro Patria (1992-1995 > Isamaaliit) Talurahvaerakond: Estonian Farmers' Party (1994-1998 > Rahvaerakond)

Current parties: EKRE (Eesti Konservatiivne Rahvaerakond): Conservative People's Party of Estonia (2012) IRL (Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit): Pro Patria and Res Publica Union (2006) Keskerakond (Eesti Keskerakond): Estonian Centre Party (1995) Reformierakond (Eesti Reformierakond): Estonian Reform Party (1994) SDE (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond): Social Democratic Party (2004, prev. Moderates)


Heads of State
Chairman of the Supreme Council
Arnold Rüütel        29 Mar 1990 -  6 Oct 1992         EKP, n/p (*)

Presidents ot the Republic
Lennart Georg Meri    6 Oct 1992 -  8 Oct 2001 (+2006) RK Isamaa, n/p 
Arnold Rüütel         8 Oct 2001 -  9 Oct 2006         ERL, n/p
Toomas Hendrik Ilves  9 Oct 2006 - 10 Oct 2016         SDE, n/p
Kersti Kaljulaid     10 Oct 2016 -                     n/p

(*) Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet under Soviet rule from 11 Apr 1983 to 29 Mar 1990. Ruler of an independent state since 6 Sep 1991 (declaration of 20 Aug 1991 recognized by USSR on that date).


Prime Ministers
Edgar Savisaar        3 Apr 1990 - 30 Jan 1992 Rahvarinne
Tiit Vähi            30 Jan 1992 - 21 Oct 1992 n/p        
Mart Laar            21 Oct 1992 -  8 Nov 1994 RK Isamaa  
Andres Tarand         8 Nov 1994 - 17 Apr 1995 n/p        
Tiit Vähi            17 Apr 1995 - 17 Mar 1997 KMÜ-K      
Mart Siimann         17 Mar 1997 - 25 Mar 1999 KMÜ-K      
Mart Laar            25 Mar 1999 - 28 Jan 2002 Isamaaliit
Siim Kallas          28 Jan 2002 - 10 Apr 2003 Reformierakond
Juhan Parts          10 Abr 2003 - 13 Apr 2005 ResP
Andrus Ansip         13 Apr 2005 - 26 Mar 2014 Reformierakond
Taavi Rõivas         26 Mar 2014 - 23 Nov 2016 Reformierakond
Jüri Ratas           23 Nov 2016 -             Keskerakond

Prime Ministers acting as Presidents in exile
Jüri Uluots          21 Jun 1940 -  9 Jan 1945 (+1945)    
August Rei            9 Jan 1945 - 29 Mar 1963 (+1963)    
Aleksander Warma     29 Mar 1963 - 23 Dec 1970 (+1970)    
Tõnis Kint           23 Dec 1970 -  1 Mar 1990 (+990)     
Heinrich Mark         1 Mar 1990 - 15 Sep 1992 (+2004) 
Mihkel Mathiesen     15 Sep 1992 - 28 Nov 2003 (+2003) (*)
Kalev Ots            28 Nov 2003 -                     (*)            

(*) Self-styled, unrecognized.


Acting Prime Ministers in exile
Otto Tief            18 Sep 1944 - 12 Jan 1953 (+1976)
Johannes Sikkar      12 Jan 1953 - 22 Aug 1960 (+1960)
Tõnis Kint           22 Aug 1960 –  1 Jan 1962 (+1990) 
Aleksander Warma      1 Jan 1962 - 29 Mar 1963 (+1970)   
Tõnis Kint            2 Apr 1964 - 23 Dec 1970 (+1990)
Heinrich Mark         8 May 1971 -  1 Mar 1990 (+2004)  
Enno Penno            1 Mar 1990 - 15 Sep 1992
Kalev Ots            15 Sep 1992 - 28 Nov 2003         (*)
Ahti Mänd             7 Dec 2003 -                     (*)   

(*) Self-styled, unrecognized. (List courtesy of Erki Kangro)


Speakers of the Riigikogu
Ülo Nugis            1992-1995 (+2011) RK Isamaa  
Toomas Savi          1995-2003         Reformierakond
Ene Ergma            2003-2006         ResP
Toomas Varek         2006-2007         Keskerakond
Ene Ergma            2007-2014         IRL
Eiki Nestor          2014-             SDE     

Ministers of Foreign Affairs
Lennart Georg Meri     1990-1992 (+2006) Rahvarinne
Jaan Manitski          1992              n/p       
Trivimi Velliste       1992-1994         RK Isamaa  
Jüri Luik              1994-1995         RK Isamaa  
Riivo Sinijärv         1995              KMÜ        
Siim Kallas            1995-1996         Reformierakond
Toomas Hendrik Ilves   1996-1998         n/p, Talurahvaerakond, Rahvaerakond   
Raul Mälk              1998-1999         n/p       
Toomas Hendrik Ilves   1999-2002         Rahvaerakond, Mõõdukad
Kristiina Ojuland      2002-2005         Reformierakond
Jaak Jõerüüt           2005              n/p (acting)
Rein Lang              2005              Reformierakond
Urmas Paet             2005-2014         Reformierakond
Anne Sulling           2014              Reformierakond (acting)
Keit Pentus-Rosimannus 2014-2015         Reformierakond
Jürgen Ligi            2015              Reformierakond (acting)
Marina Kaljurand       2015-2016         n/p
Jürgen Ligi            2016              Reformierakond
Sven Mikser            2016-             SDE

Ministers of Defence
Uno Veering          1992              (interim)
Ülo Uluots           1992      (+1997) Rahvarinne
Hain Rebas           1992-1993         ERSP
Jüri Luik            1993-1994         RK Isamaa  
Indrek Kannik        1994              RK Isamaa  
Enn Tupp             1994-1995         RK Isamaa  
Andrus Öövel         1995-1999         KMÜ        
Jüri Luik            1999-2002         Isamaaliit      
Sven Mikser          2002-2003         Keskerakond
Margus Hanson        2003-2004         Reformierakond
Jaak Jõerüüt         2004-2005         Reformierakond
Jürgen Ligi          2005-2007         Reformierakond
Jaak Aaviksoo        2007-2011         IRL
Mart Laar            2011-2012         IRL
Urmas Reinsalu       2012-2014         IRL
Sven Mikser          2014-2015         SDE
Hannes Hanso         2015-2016         SDE
Margus Tsahkna       2016-             IRL 

Ministers of the Interior
Olev Laanjärv        1990-1992 (+2007)
Robert Närska        1992              Rahvarinne    
Lagle Parek          1992-1993         ERSP
Heiki Arike          1993-1994         n/p
Kaido Kama           1994-1995         Parempool   
Edgar Savisaar       1995              Keskerakond
Märt Rask            1995-1996         Reformierakond
Riivo Sinijärv       1996-1997         KMÜ        
Robert Lepikson      1997-1998 (+2006) KMÜ         
Olari Taal           1998-1999         n/p
Jüri Mõis            1999              Isamaaliit
Tarmo Loodus         1999-2002         Isamaaliit
Ain Seppik           2002-2003         Keskerakond
Toomas Varek         2003              Keskerakond
Margus Leivo         2003-2005         ERL
Kalle Laanet         2005-2007         Keskerakond   
Jüri Pihl            2007-2009         n/p
Rein Lang            2009              Reformierakond (acting)
Marko Pomerants      2009-2011         IRL
Ken-Marti Vaher      2011-2014         IRL
Hanno Pevkur         2014-2016         Reformierakond 
Andres Anvelt        2016-             SDE             

Ministers of Finance
Rein Miller          1990-1992
Madis Üürike         1992-1994 n/p
Heiki Kranich        1994      RK Isamaa
Andres Lipstok       1994-1995 Liberaalid, Reformierakond
Mart Opmann          1995-1999 KMÜ
Siim Kallas          1999-2002 Reformierakond
Harri Õunapuu        2002-2003 Keskerakond
Tõnis Palts          2003      ResP
Taavi Veskimägi      2003-2005 ResP
Aivar Sõerd          2005-2007 ERL
Ivari Padar          2007-2009 SDE
Helir-Valdor Seeder  2009      IRL (acting)
Jürgen Ligi          2009-2014 Reformierakond
Maris Lauri          2014-2015 Reformierakond
Sven Sester          2015-     IRL

Chairmen of Keskerakond
Edgar Savisaar       1995-1996 
Andra Veidemann      1995-1996 
Edgar Savisaar       1996-2016
Jüri Ratas           2016-     

The Estonian Centre Party (Keskerakond) was registered as a party for the 5 Mar 1995 elections, but functioned as a parliamentary caucus since 1992.


Chairmen of Liberaalid, Reformierakond
Siim Kallas          1994-2004 
Andrus Ansip         2004-2014
Taavi Rõivas         2014-     

The Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) was established as a party on 14 Nov 1994; since 27 Jun 1994 it had existed as a parliamentary caucus known as the Liberals (Liberaalid). Shortly after its foundation, the ELDP merged into the Reformierakond.


Chairmen of EMK, ESDP, Mõõdukad, SDE
Chairmen of EMK
Ivar Raig            1990-1994 
Vambo Kaal           1994-1996 

Chairmen of ESDP
Marju Lauristin      1990-1995 
Eiki Nestor          1995-1996 

Chairmen of Mõõdukad and SDE
Andres Tarand        1996-2001 
Toomas Hendrik Ilves 2001-2002 
Ivari Padar          2002-2009
Jüri Pihl            2009-2010
Sven Mikser          2010-2015
Jevgeni Ossinovski   2015-

The Mõõdukad (Moderates) was registered as a party on 28 Apr 1996 as the merger of EMK (founded 7 Apr 1990) and ESDP (founded 8 Sep 1990). Both parties formed a common list for the 1992 and 1995 elections and up to 1996 they shared a single parliamentary caucus called the Moderates as well. On 27 Nov 1999 the ER merged into the Moderates, coming up a new party called People's Party Moderates. It was renamed Social Democratic Party (SDE) on 7 Feb 2004.


Chairmen of IRL
Taavi Veskimägi    +            
Tõnis Lukas          2006-2007
Mart Laar            2007-2012
Urmas Reinsalu       2012-2015
Margus Tsahkna       2015-       

IRL was founded on 4 Jun 2006 as the merger of Isamaaliit and ResP.


Chairmen of EME, ERL, EKRE
Arnold Rüütel        1994-2000 
Villu Reiljan        2000-2007
Ester Tuiksoo        2007      (acting)
Jaanus Marrandi      2007-2008
Karel Rüütli         2008-2010
Arvo Sirendi         2010      (acting)
Juhan Aare           2010
Andrus Blok          2010-2011
Margo Miljand        2011-2013
Mart Helme           2013-   

EME was founded in 1994 from a rural parliamentary caucus existing since 1992. Member of the five-party KMÜ coalition (see above) before the 1999 elections, on 18 Oct 1999 it changed its name to ERL and on 10 Jun 2000 it merged with two extraparliamentary and also former KMÜ parties, EM and EPPE. The new party retained the name ERL. On 24 Mar 2012 the Estonian Patriotic Movement merged into the ERL and the latter changed its name to the Conservative People's Party of Estonia (EKRE).


Chairmen of ResP (2001-2006)
Rein Taagepera       2001-2002  
Juhan Parts          2002-2005  
Taavi Veskimägi      2005-2006 

Res Publica (ResP) was founded on 7 Dec 2001. On 4 Jun 2006 ResP merged with Isamaaliit to form the IRL.


Chairmen of ERSP, RK Isamaa, Isamaaliit (1988/1992-2006)
Chairmen of ERSP
Lagle Parek          1988-1993 
Tunne Kelam          1993-1995  

Chairman of RK Isamaa
Mart Laar            1992-1995 

Chairmen of Isamaaliit
Toivo Jürgenson      1995-1998 
Mart Laar            1998-2002 
Tunne Kelam          2002-2005 
Tõnis Lukas          2005-2006 

Isamaaliit was born on 2 Dec 1995 as the merger of ERSP, founded in Aug 1988, and RK Isamaa, founded in Nov 1992 as the merger of four parties: Estonian Christian-Democratic Union, Estonian Christian-Democratic Party, Conservative National Party and Coalition Party of Republicans. A fifth force, the Estonian Liberals, joined RK Isamaa later. On 4 Jun 2006 Isamaaliit merged with ResP to form the IRL


Chairmen of KMÜ-K, Koonderakond (1994-2001)
Tiit Vähi            1994-1997 
Mart Siimann         1997-1999 
Andrus Öövel         1999-2000 
Märt Kubo            2000-2001

The Estonian Coalition Party (Koonderakond) was first founded in Dec 1991 as a parliamentary caucus and was registered as a party in 1994 to contest the 1995 elections. From 1995 to 1999 was part of the electoral block KMÜ together with the EM, the EME, the EPPE and the Farmers' Assembly (PK), receiving the alternative name of KMÜ-K. In 1999 the five-party coalition was disbanded, althought Koonderakond run allied with EPPE and EM in the ballots that year. Koonderakond was disbanded on 17 Nov 2001.


Chairmen of Talurahvaerakond, Rahvaerakond (1994-1999)
Jaan-Hans Kuks       1994-1998
Toomas Hendrik Ilves 1998-1999 
The Estonian Farmers' Party (Talurahvaerakond) was founded on 5 Nov 1994. On 5 Apr 1998 it merged with the People's Party of Republicans and Conservatives to form the Estonian People's Party (Rahvaerakond). Rahvaerakond merged into the Moderates on 27 Nov 1999, ceasing to exist.

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