ZPC European Governments

European Governments



This collection provides shorts descriptions (prime ministers, tenures and partisan compositions) of European governments over the years. For additional information, check the countries at the Political Leaders datasheets. Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website.




Albanian
Governments since 1982

Parties: LM: Legality Movement LSI: Socialist Movement for Integration PAASh: Agrarian Environmentalist Party of Albania PADSh: Party of the Democratic Alliance of Albania PASh: Agrarian Party of Albania (> PAASh) PBDN: Human Rights' Union Party PBK: National Front Party PBSD: Social Democratic Unity Party PDK: Christian Democratic Party of Albania PDR: New Democratic Party PDSh: Democratic Party of Albania PPSh: Albanian Workers' Party (> PSSh 3 Jun 1991) PSDSh: Social Democratic Party of Albania PRSh: Republican Party of Albania PSSh: Socialist Party of Albania

Elections: 31 Mar, 7 Apr and 14 Apr 1991 / 22 and 29 Mar 1992 / 26 May, 2 Jun and 16 Jun 1996 / 29 Jun and 6 Jul 1997 / 24 Jun, 8 Jul, 22 Jul and 29 Jul 2001 / 3 Jul 2005 / 28 Jun 2009 / 23 Jun 2013

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Adil ăaršani (I) PPSh 18 Jan 1982 - 19 Feb 1987 PPSh
Adil ăaršani (II) PPSh 19 Feb 1987 - 22 Feb 1991 PPSh
Fatos Nano (I) PPSh 22 Feb 1991 - 12 May 1991 PPSh
Fatos Nano (II) PPSh 12 May 1991 - 05 Jun 1991 PPSh
Ylli Bufi PPSh/PSSh 05 Jun 1991 - 11 Dec 1991 PPSh/PSSh + PDSh + PSDSh + PRSh + PASh
Vilson Ahmeti n/p 11 Dec 1991 - 13 Apr 1992 n/p ministers
Aleksander Meksi (I) PDSh 13 Apr 1992 - 04 Dec 1994 PDSh + PRSh + PSDSh
Aleksander Meksi (II) PDSh 04 Dec 1994 - 11 Jul 1996 PDSh + PSDSh
Aleksander Meksi (III) PDSh 11 Jul 1996 - 11 Mar 1997 PDSh + PRSh + PBSD + PDK
Bashkim Fino PSSh 11 Mar 1997 - 24 Jul 1997 PSSh + PDSh + PBSD + LM + PDK + PBK + PSDSh + PRSh + PBDN (1)
Fatos Nano (III) PSSh 24 Jul 1997 - 02 Oct 1998 PSSh + PSDSh + PADSh + PBDN + PASh
Pandeli Majko (I) PSSh 02 Oct 1998 - 29 Oct 1999 PSSh + PSDSh + PADSh + PBDN + PASh
Ilir Meta (I) PSSh 29 Oct 1999 - 12 Sep 2001 PSSh + PSDSh + PADSh + PBDN + PASh
Ilir Meta (II) PSSh 12 Sep 2001 - 22 Feb 2002 PSSh + PSDSh + PADSh + PBDN + PASh
Pandeli Majko (II) PSSh 22 Feb 2002 - 31 Jul 2002 PSSh + PSDSh + PBDN + PASh
Fatos Nano (IV) PSSh 31 Jul 2002 - 11 Sep 2005 PSSh + PSDSh + PBDN + PASh/PAASh
Sali Berisha (I) PDSh 11 Sep 2005 - 17 Sep 2009 PDSh + PRSh + PBDN + PAASh + PDR + PDK (2)
Sali Berisha (II) PDSh 17 Sep 2009 - 15 Sep 2013 PDSh + LSI + PRSh (3)
Edi Rama PSSh 15 Sep 2013 - in office PSSh + LSI

(1) Government of national union.
(2) PDK joined the Cabinet on 20 Mar 2007.
(3) LSI withdrew on 3 Apr 2013.


Austrian
Governments since 1945

Parties: BZÍ: Alliance for the future of Austria (split from FPÍ) FPÍ: Freedom Party of Austia KPÍ: Communist Party of Austria SPÍ: Social Democratic Party of Austria (to 1991, Austrian Socialist Party) ÍVP: Austrian People's Party

Elections: 25 Nov 1945 / 9 Oct 1949 / 22 Feb 1953 / 13 May 1956 / 10 May 1959 / 18 Nov 1962 / 6 Mar 1966 / 1 Mar 1970 / 10 Oct 1971 / 5 Oct 1975 / 6 May 1979 / 24 Apr 1983 / 23 Nov 1986 / 7 Oct 1990 / 9 Oct 1994 / 17 Dec 1995 / 3 Oct 1999 / 24 Nov 2002 / 1 Oct 2006 / 28 Sep 2008 / 29 Sep 2013

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Karl Renner SPÍ 29 Apr 1945 - 20 Dec 1945 SPÍ + ÍVP + KPÍ
Leopold Figl (I) ÍVP 20 Dec 1945 - 08 Nov 1949 ÍVP + SPÍ + KPÍ (1)
Leopold Figl (II) ÍVP 08 Nov 1949 - 28 Oct 1952 ÍVP + SPÍ
Leopold Figl (III) ÍVP 28 Oct 1952 - 02 Apr 1953 ÍVP + SPÍ
Julius Raab (I) ÍVP 02 Apr 1953 - 29 Jun 1956 ÍVP + SPÍ
Julius Raab (II) ÍVP 29 Jun 1956 - 15 Jul 1959 ÍVP + SPÍ
Julius Raab (III) ÍVP 15 Jul 1959 - 03 Nov 1960 ÍVP + SPÍ
Julius Raab (IV) ÍVP 03 Nov 1960 - 11 Apr 1961 ÍVP + SPÍ
Alfons Gorbach (I) ÍVP 11 Apr 1961 - 27 Mar 1963 ÍVP + SPÍ
Alfons Gorbach (II) ÍVP 27 Mar 1963 - 02 Apr 1964 ÍVP + SPÍ
Josef Klaus (I) ÍVP 02 Apr 1964 - 19 Apr 1966 ÍVP + SPÍ
Josef Klaus (II) ÍVP 19 Apr 1966 - 21 Apr 1970 ÍVP
Bruno Kreisky (I) SPÍ 21 Apr 1970 - 04 Nov 1971 SPÍ
Bruno Kreisky (II) SPÍ 04 Nov 1971 - 28 Oct 1975 SPÍ
Bruno Kreisky (III) SPÍ 28 Oct 1975 - 05 Jun 1979 SPÍ
Bruno Kreisky (IV) SPÍ 05 Jun 1979 - 24 May 1983 SPÍ
Fred Sinowatz SPÍ 24 May 1983 - 16 Jun 1986 SPÍ + FPÍ
Franz Vranitzky (I) SPÍ 16 Jun 1986 - 21 Jan 1987 SPÍ + FPÍ
Franz Vranitzky (II) SPÍ 21 Jan 1987 - 17 Dec 1990 SPÍ + ÍVP
Franz Vranitzky (III) SPÍ 17 Dec 1990 - 29 Nov 1994 SPÍ + ÍVP
Franz Vranitzky (IV) SPÍ 29 Nov 1994 - 12 Mar 1996 SPÍ + ÍVP (2)
Franz Vranitzky (V) SPÍ 12 Mar 1996 - 28 Jan 1997 SPÍ + ÍVP
Viktor Klima SPÍ 28 Jan 1997 - 04 Feb 2000 SPÍ + ÍVP
Wolfgang SchŘssel (I) ÍVP 04 Feb 2000 - 28 Feb 2003 ÍVP + FPÍ (3)
Wolfgang SchŘssel (II) ÍVP 28 Feb 2003 - 11 Jan 2007 ÍVP + FPÍ/BZÍ (4)
Alfred Gusenbauer SPÍ 11 Jan 2007 - 02 Dec 2008 SPÍ + ÍVP (5)
Werner Faymann (I) SPÍ 02 Dec 2008 - 16 Dec 2013 SPÍ + ÍVP
Werner Faymann (II) SPÍ 16 Dec 2013 - 09 May 2016 SPÍ + ÍVP (6)
Reinhold Mitterlehner (acting) ÍVP 09 May 2016 - 17 May 2016 SPÍ + ÍVP (6)
Christian Kern SPÍ 17 May 2016 - in office SPÍ + ÍVP

(1) KPÍ left the Government on 24 Nov 1947.
(2) ÍVP declared the coalition broken on 12 Oct 1995.
(3) Chancellor SchŘssel dissolved the Government on 9 Sep 2002.
(4) On 4 Apr 2005 the FPÍ wing loyal to former party chairman J÷rg Haider split and formed a new party, the BZÍ. On 17 Apr 2005 the BZÍ replaced the FPÍ as the ÍVP coalition partner in the Federal Government.
(5) ÍVP declared the coalition broken on 7 Jul 2008.
(6) Chancellor Faymann resigned on 9 May 2016; then, Vice Chancellor Mitterlehner became acting chancellor.


Belgian
Governments since 1945

Parties: Agalev: Living in a different way (Flemish ecologist) BSP/PSB: Belgian Socialist Party CDH: Humanist Democratic Center (Walloon, PSC to 2002) CD&V: Christian Democrats & Flemish (Flemish, CVP to 2001) CVP: Christian People's Party (Flemish, CD&V since 2001) Ecolo: Walloon ecologists FDF: Francophone Democratic Federalists MCC: Citizens' Movement for Change (Walloon) MR: Reformist Movement (PRL to 2002) KP/PC: Catholic Party KPB/PCB: Communist Party of Belgium LP/PL: Liberal Party MCC: Citizens' Movement for Change N-VA: New Flemish Alliance PLP: Party for Freedom and Progress (Walloon, PRLW since 1976) PRL: Liberal Reformist Party (Walloon, PRLW to 1979, MR since 2002) PRLW: Party for Reforms and Freedom in Wallonia (PLP to 1976, PRL since 1979) PS: Socialist Party (Walloon) PSC: Social Christian Party (Walloon, CDH since 2002) PVV/PLP: Party for Freedom and Progress PVV: Party for Freedom and Progress (Flemish, VLD since 1992) RW: Walloon Rally SP: Socialist Party ((Flemish, SP.A from 2001) SP.A: Social Progressive Alternative ((Flemish, SP to 2001) Spirit: Social, Progressive, International, Regionalist, Integral-Democratic, Turned to the Future (Flemish) UDB: Belgian Democratic Union VLD: Flemish Liberals and Democrats (PVV to 1992, Open-VLD since 2007) VU: People's Union-Flemish Free Democrats

Elections: 17 Feb 1946 / 26 Jun 1949 / 4 Jun 1950 / 11 Apr 1954 / 1 Jun 1958 / 26 Mar 1961 / 23 May 1965 / 31 Mar 1968 / 7 Nov 1971 / 10 Mar 1974 / 17 Apr 1977 / 17 Dec 1978 / 8 Nov 1981 / 13 Oct /1985 / 13 Dec 1987 / 24 Nov 1991 / 21 May 1995 / 13 Jun 1999 / 18 May 2003 / 10 Jun 2007 / 13 Jun 2010 / 25 May 2014

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Achille van Acker (I) BSP/PSB 12 Feb 1945 ľ 02 Aug 1945 BSP/PSB + KP/PC + LP/PL + KPB/PCB
Achille van Acker (II) BSP/PSB 02 Aug 1945 - 13 Mar 1946 BSP/PSB + LP/PL + KPB/PCB + UDB
Paul-Henri Spaak (II) BSP/PSB 13 Mar 1946 ľ 31 Mar 1946 BSP/PSB
Achille van Acker (III) BSP/PSB 31 Mar 1946 ľ 02 Aug 1946 BSP/PSB + LP/PL + KPB/PCB
Camille Huysmans BSP/PSB 02 Aug 1946 - 20 Mar 1947 BSP/PSB + LP/PL + KPB/PCB
Paul-Henri Spaak (III) BSP/PSB 20 Mar 1947 - 27 Nov 1948 BSP/PSB + CVP/PSC
Paul-Henri Spaak (IV) BSP/PSB 27 Nov 1948 - 11 Aug 1949 BSP/PSB + CVP/PSC
Gaston Eyskens (I) CVP/PSC 11 Aug 1949 - 08 Jun 1950 CVP/PSC + LP/PL
Jean Duvieusart CVP/PSC 08 Jun 1950 - 15 Aug 1950 CVP/PSC
Joseph Pholien CVP/PSC 15 Aug 1950 - 15 Jan 1952 CVP/PSC
Jean Van Houtte CVP/PSC 15 Jan 1952 - 23 Apr 1954 CVP/PSC
Achille van Acker (IV) BSP/PSB 23 Apr 1954 - 26 Jun 1958 BSP/PSB + LP/PL
Gaston Eyskens (II) CVP/PSC 26 Jun 1958 - 06 Nov 1958 CVP/PSC
Gaston Eyskens (III) CVP/PSC 06 Nov 1958 - 25 Apr 1961 CVP/PSC + LP/PL
ThÚo LefŔvre CVP/PSC 25 Apr 1961 - 28 Jul 1965 CVP/PSC + BSP/PSB
Pierre Harmel CVP/PSC 28 Jul 1965 - 19 Mar 1966 CVP/PSC + BSP/PSB
Paul Vanden Boeynants (I) CVP/PSC 19 Mar 1966 - 17 Jun 1968 CVP/PSC + PVV/PLP
Gaston Eyskens (IV) CVP 17 Jun 1968 - 21 Jan 1972 CVP + PSC + BSP/PSB
Gaston Eyskens (IV) CVP 21 Jan 1972 - 26 Jan 1973 CVP + PSC + BSP/PSB
Edmond Leburton (I) BSP/PSB 26 Jan 1973 - 23 Oct 1973 BSP/PSB + CVP + PSC + PVV + PLP
Edmond Leburton (II) BSP/PSB 23 Oct 1973 - 25 Apr 1974 BSP/PSB + CVP + PSC + PVV + PLP
LÚo Tindemans (I) CVP 25 Apr 1974 - 11 Jun 1974 CVP + PSC + PVV + PLP
LÚo Tindemans (II) CVP 11 Jun 1974 - 06 Mar 1977 CVP + PSC + PVV + PLP + RW
LÚo Tindemans (III) CVP 06 Mar 1977 - 03 Jun 1977 CVP + PSC + PVV + PRLW
LÚo Tindemans (IV) CVP 03 Jun 1977 - 20 Oct 1978 CVP + PSC + BSP/PSB + VU + FDF
Paul Vanden Boeynants (II) CVP 20 Oct 1978 - 03 Apr 1979 CVP + PSC + SP + PS + VU + FDF
Wilfried Martens (I) CVP 03 Apr 1979 - 23 Jan 1980 CVP + PSC + SP + PS + FDF
Wilfried Martens (II) CVP 23 Jan 1980 - 18 May 1980 CVP + PSC + SP + PS
Wilfried Martens (III) CVP 18 May 1980 - 22 Oct 1980 CVP + PSC + SP + PS + PVV + PRL
Wilfried Martens (IV) CVP 22 Oct 1980 - 06 Apr 1981 CVP + PSC + SP + PS
Mark Eyskens CVP 06 Apr 1981 - 17 Dec 1981 CVP + PSC + SP + PS
Wilfried Martens (V) CVP 17 Dec 1981 - 28 Nov 1985 CVP + PSC + PVV + PRL
Wilfried Martens (VI) CVP 28 Nov 1985 - 21 Oct 1987 CVP + PSC + PVV + PRL
Wilfried Martens (VII) CVP 21 Oct 1987 - 09 May 1988 CVP + PSC + PVV + PRL
Wilfried Martens (VIII) CVP 09 May 1988 - 29 Sep 1991 CVP + PSC + SP + PS + VU (1)
Wilfried Martens (IX) CVP 29 Sep 1991 - 07 Mar 1992 CVP + PSC + SP + PS
Jean-Luc Dehaene (I) CVP 07 Mar 1992 - 23 Jun 1995 CVP + PSC + SP + PS
Jean-Luc Dehaene (II) CVP 23 Jun 1995 - 12 Jul 1999 CVP + PSC + SP + PS
Guy Verhofstadt (I) VLD 12 Jul 1999 - 12 Jul 2003 VLD + PRL + SP + PS + Ecolo + Agalev (2)
Guy Verhofstadt (II) VLD 12 Jul 2003 - 21 Dec 2007 VLD + SP.A + PS + MR + Spirit
Guy Verhofstadt (III) Open-VLD 21 Dec 2007 - 20 Mar 2008 Open-VLD + CD&V + PS + MR + CDH
Yves Leterme (I) CD&V 20 Mar 2008 - 30 Dec 2008 CD&V + Open VLD + PS + MR + CDH
Herman Van Rompuy CD&V 30 Dec 2008 - 25 Nov 2009 CD&V + Open VLD + PS + MR + CDH
Yves Leterme (II) CD&V 25 Nov 2009 - 06 Dec 2011 CD&V + Open VLD + PS + MR + CDH
Elio Di Rupo PS 06 Dec 2011 - 11 Oct 2014 PS + SP.A + CD&V + CDH + Open VLD + MR
Charles Michel MR 11 Oct 2014 - in office MR + CD&V + N-VA + Open VLD

(1) VU withdrew on 29 Sep 1991.
(2) Ecolo withdrew on 19 May 2003.


Bosnian
Governments since 1990

Parties: DF: Democratic Front HDZ: Croatian Democratic Union HDZ 1990: Croatian Democratic Union 1990 HDZ BiH: Croatian Democratic Union for Bosnia and Herzegovina (new name of HDZ) NHI: New Croatian Initiative NSRB: People's Party Work for Betterment PDP: Party for Democratic Progress SA: Socialist Alliance SBB: Union for a Better Future of BiH SBiH: Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina SDA: Party of Democratic Action SDP: Social Democratic Party of BiH SDS: Serbian Democratic Party SKB: League of Bosnian Communists SNS RS: Serbian People's Union of Republika SprskaSNSD: Party of Independent Social Democrats SPO: Serbian Renaissance Movement SP RS: Socialist Party of Republika Sprska n/p: non-party

Elections: 18 Nov, 2 Dec, 9 Dec 1990 (as Yugoslav republic; independence proclaimed 3 Mar 1992) / 14 Sep 1996 / 12-13 Sep 1998 / 11 Nov 2000 / 5 Oct 2002 / 1 Oct 2006 / 3 Oct 2010 / 12 Oct 2014

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Jure Pelivan HDZ 28 Nov 1990 - 09 Nov 1992 SDA + HDZ + SDS (1)
Mile Akmadzic HDZ 09 Nov 1992 - 25 Oct 1993 SDA + HDZ (2)
Haris Silajdzic SDA 25 Oct 1993 - 21 Jan 1996 SDA + HDZ + SPO + SA + SKB
Hasan Muratovic n/p (3) 21 Jan 1996 - 03 Jan 1997 SDA + HDZ
Haris Silajdzic/
Boro Bosic (4)
SBiH/
SDS
03 Jan 1997 - 03 Feb 1999 SBiH + SDS + SDA + HDZ
Haris Silajdzic/
Svetozar Mihajlovic (4)
SBiH/
SP RS
03 Feb 1999 - 06 Jun 2000 SBiH + SP RS + SNS RS + SDA + HDZ
Spasoje Tusevljak n/p 06 Jun 2000 - 18 Oct 2000 SBiH + SP RS + SNS RS + SDA + HDZ
Martin Raguz HDZ 18 Oct 2000 - 22 Feb 2001 SBiH + SP RS + SNS RS + SDA + HDZ
Bozidar Matic SDP 22 Feb 2001 - 18 Jul 2001 SDP + SBiH + NHI + SNS RS + PDP (5)
Zlatko Lagumdzija SDP 18 Jul 2001 - 15 Mar 2002 SDP + SBiH + NHI + SNS RS + PDP
Dragan Mikerevic PDP 15 Mar 2002 - 23 Dec 2002 SDP + SBiH + NHI + SNS RS + PDP
Adnan Terzic SDA 23 Dec 2002 - 11 Jan 2007 SDA + SDS + HDZ + SBiH + PDP
Nikola Spiric SNSD 11 Jan 2007 - 12 Jan 2012 SNSD + SBiH + SDA + PDP + HDZ 1990 + HDZ BiH + NSRB
Vjekoslav Bevanda HDZ BiH 12 Jan 2012 - 11 Feb 2015 SDP + SDS + HDZ BiH + SNSD + SBB + HDZ 1990
Denis Zvizdic SDA 11 Feb 2015 - in office SDA + SDS + HDZ BiH + PDP + DF

(1) SDA, HDZ and SDS comprised the cabinet core. SDS withdrew by Oct 1991. Aditional minor partners not available.
(2) SDA and HDZ comprised the cabinet core. Aditional minor partners not available.
(3) Formally a non-party prime minister, but designated by and linked to SDA.
(4) Co-prime ministers.
(5) SDP, SBiH and NHI formed the coalition Alliance for Changes; SNS RS and PDP were not members, but supported the alliance.


Bulgarian
Governments since 1986

Parties: ABV: Alternative for Bulgarian Revival Ataka: Attack (member of OP) BKP: Bulgarian Communist Party (transformed into BSP 3 Apr 1990) BSP: Bulgarian Socialist Party BZnS: Bulgarian People's Farmers Union BZnS(AS): Bulgarian People's Farmers Union (Aleksandar Stambolijski) DE: Ekoglasnost movement DP: Democratic Party DPS: Movement for Rights and Freedoms n/p: non-party GERB: Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria NDSV: National Movement Simeon II (renamed National Movement for Stability and Progress in 2007) NFSB: National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria (member of OP) OP: United Patriots (coalition) RB: Reformist Bloc (coalition made by SDS and BZnS) SDS: Union of Democratic Forces (coalition) VMRO-BND: Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Bulgarian National Movement (member of OP)

Elections: 10-17 Jun 1990 / 13 Oct 1991 / 18 Dec 1994 / 19 Apr 1997 / 17 Jun 2001 / 25 Jun 2005 / 5 Jul 2009 / 12 May 2013 / 5 Oct 2014 / 26 Mar 2017

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Georgy Atanasov BKP 21 Mar 1986 - 03 Feb 1990 BKP
Andrey Lukanov BKP/BSP 03 Feb 1990 - 07 Dec 1990 BKP/BSP
Dimitar Popov n/p 07 Dec 1990 - 08 Nov 1991 BSP + SDS + BZnS
Filip Dimitrov SDS 08 Nov 1991 - 30 Dec 1992 SDS
Lyuben Berov n/p 30 Dec 1992 - 17 Oct 1994 n/p (1)
Reneta Indzhova (interim) n/p 17 Oct 1994 - 25 Jan 1995 n/p
Zhan Videnov BSP 25 Jan 1995 - 13 Feb 1997 BSP + BZnS(AS) + DE
Stefan Sofiyanski (interim) n/p 13 Feb 1997 - 21 May 1997 n/p
Ivan Kostov SDS 21 May 1997 - 24 Jul 2001 SDS + DP (2)
Simeon Sakskoburggotski NDSV 24 Jul 2001 - 16 Aug 2005 NDSV + DPS
Sergey Stanishev BSP 16 Aug 2005 - 27 Jul 2009 BSP + NDSV + DPS
Boyko Borisov (I) GERB 27 Jul 2009 - 13 Mar 2013 GERB
Marin Raykov (interim) n/p 13 Mar 2013 - 29 May 2013 n/p
Plamen Oresharski n/p 29 May 2013 - 06 Aug 2014 BSP + DPS
Georgy Bliznashki (interim) n/p 06 Aug 2014 - 07 Nov 2014 n/p
Boyko Borisov (II) GERB 07 Nov 2014 - 27 Jan 2017 GERB + RB + ABV (3)
Ognyan Gerdzhikov (interim) NDSV 27 Jan 2017 - 04 May 2017 NDSV + BSP + SDS + n/p
Boyko Borisov (III) GERB 04 May 2017 - in office GERB + OP (VMRO-BND, NFSB, Ataka) (4)

(1) Government made with non-party ministers but supported from Parliament by BSP and DPS.
(2) On 15 Feb 1997 the 15 parties comprising the SDS coalition decided to merge into a sole party, also called SDS, which along with the DP, the BZnS and the Bulgarian Social Democratic Party (BSDP) run under an United Democratic Forces (ODS) umbrella in the 19 Apr 1997 elections.
(3) ABV withdrew on 10 May 2016.
(4) Ataka belongs to the OP coalition and supports the Government, without having ministers.


Croatian
Governments since 1990

Parties: DC: Democratic Center HDZ: Croatian Democratic Union HKDS: Croatian Christian Democratic Party HNS: Croatian People's Party-Liberal Democrats HSLS: Croatian Social Liberal Party HSP: Croatian Party of Rights HSS: Croatian Peasant Party IDS-DDI: Istrian Democratic Assembly Libra: Party of Liberal Democrats LS: Liberal Party Most: Bridge of Independent Lists SDHS: Social Democratic Party of Croatia SDP: Party of the Democratic Changes/Social Democratic Party of Croatia SDSS: Independent Serb Democratic Party

Elections: 22 Apr, 6 May 1990 (as Yugoslav republic, independence proclaimed 25 May 1991) / 2 Aug 1992 / 29 Oct 1995 / 3 Jan 2000 / 23 Nov 2003 / 25 Nov 2007 / 4 Dec 2011 / 8 Nov 2015 / 11 Sep 2016

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Stipe Mesic HDZ 30 May 1990 - 24 Aug 1990 HDZ
Josip Manolic HDZ 24 Aug 1990 - 17 Jul 1991 HDZ
Franjo Greguric HDZ 17 Jul 1991 - 12 Aug 1992 HDZ + SDP + SDHS + HKDS
Hrvoje Sarinic HDZ 12 Aug 1992 - 03 Apr 1993 HDZ
Nikica Valentic HDZ 03 Apr 1993 - 07 Nov 1995 HDZ
Zlatko Matesa HDZ 07 Nov 1995 - 27 Jan 2000 HDZ
Ivica Racan (I) SDP 27 Jan 2000 - 30 Jul 2002 SDP + HSLS + HNS + LS + IDS-DDI + HSS (1)
Ivica Racan (II) SDP 30 Jul 2002 - 23 Dec 2003 SDP + HNS + LS + HSS + Libra
Ivo Sanader (I) HDZ 23 Dec 2003 - 17 Feb 2005 HDZ + DC
Ivo Sanader (II) HDZ 17 Feb 2005 - 12 Jan 2008 HDZ + DC
Ivo Sanader (III) HDZ 12 Jan 2008 - 06 Jul 2009 HDZ + HSS + HSLS + SDSS
Jadranka Kosor HDZ 06 Jul 2009 - 23 Dec 2011 HDZ + HSS + HSLS + SDSS
Zoran Milanovic SDP 23 Dec 2011 - 22 Jan 2016 SDP + HNS + IDS-DDI
Tihomir Oreskovic n/p 22 Jan 2016 - 19 Oct 2016 HDZ + Most
Andrej Plenkovic HDZ 19 Oct 2016 - in office HDZ + Most (2)

(1) IDS-DDI withdrew on 3 Jun 2001.
(2) MOST was sacked on 28 Apr 2017 and HNS joined on 9 Jun 2017.


Cypriot
Governments since 1988

Parties: AKEL: Progressive party of the Working People DIKO: Democratic Party DISY: Democratic Rally EDEK: Socialist Party of Cyprus (then, Movement for Social Democracy) Evroko: European Party KF: Liberal Party KED: Movement of Free Democrats KISOS: Movement of Social Democrats (EDEK denomination 1999-2003)n/p: non-party

Elections:: 19 May 1991 / 26 May 1996 / 27 May 2001 / 21 May 2006 / 22 May 2011

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Georgios Vasiliou n/p 28 Feb 1988 - 28 Feb 1993 n/p ministers
Glafkos Clerides (I) DISY 28 Feb 1993 - 28 Feb 1998 DISY + DIKO (1)
Glafkos Clerides (II) DISY 08 Feb 1998 - 28 Feb 2003 DISY + DIKO + EDEK/KISOS + KF + KED (2)
Tassos Papadopoulos DIKO 28 Feb 2003 - 28 Feb 2008 DIKO + AKEL + EDEK/KISOS (3)
Dimitris Christofias (I) AKEL 28 Feb 2008 - 05 Aug 2011 AKEL + DIKO + EDEK
Dimitris Christofias (II) AKEL 05 Aug 2011 - 28 Feb 2013 AKEL
Nikos Anastasiadis DISY 28 Feb 2013 - in office DISY + DIKO + Evroko (4)

(1) DIKO withdrew on 5 Nov 1997.
(2) DIKO ministers stayed in the Cabinet as mavericks not authorized by the party. EDEK withdrew on 4 Jan 1999.
(3) AKEL withdrew on 11 Jul 2007.
(4) DIKO withdrew on 28 Feb 2014 and Evroko in Marc 2016.


Czech
Governments since 1993

Parties: ANO 2011: Action of Dissatisfied Citizens 2011; CSSD: Czech Social Democratic Party KDS: Christian Democratic Party (merged into ODS in Mar 1996) KDU-CSL: Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party LIDEM: Liberal Democrats ODA: Civic Democratic Alliance ODS: Civic Democratic Party SZ: Green Party TOP 09: Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09 US: Union of Freedom US-DEU: Union of Freedom-Democratic Union (two party merger in Oct 2001) VV: Public Affairs n/p: non-party

Elections: 31 May, 1 Jun 1996 / 19-20 Jun 1998 / 14-15 Jun 2002 / 2-3 Jun 2006 / 28-29 May 2010 / 25-26 Oct 2013

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Vßclav Klaus (I) ODS 01 Jan 1993 - 04 Jul 1996 ODS + KDU-CSL + ODA + KDS
Vßclav Klaus (II) ODS 04 Jul 1996 - 17 Dec 1997 ODS + KDU-CSL + ODA (1)
Josef Tosovskř n/p 17 Dec 1997 - 17 Jul 1998 ODS/US + KDU-CSL + ODA (2)
Milos Zeman CSSD 17 Jul 1998 - 12 Jul 2002 CSSD
VladimÝr Spidla CSSD 12 Jul 2002 - 26 Jul 2004 CSSD + KDU-CSL + US-DEU
Stanislav Gross CSSD 26 Jul 2004 - 25 Apr 2005 CSSD + KDU-CSL + US-DEU (3)
JirÝ Paroubek CSSD 25 Apr 2005 - 04 Sep 2006 CSSD + KDU-CSL + US-DEU
Mirek Topolßnek (I) ODS 04 Sep 2006 - 09 Jan 2007 ODS
Mirek Topolßnek (II) ODS 09 Jan 2007 - 08 May 2009 ODS + KDU-CSL + SZ
Jan Fischer n/p 08 May 2009 - 13 Jul 2010 n/p ministers
Petr Necas ODS 13 Jul 2010 - 10 Jul 2013 ODS + TOP 09 + VV + LIDEM (4)
JirÝ Rusnok n/p 10 Jul 2013 - 29 Jan 2014 n/p ministers
Bohuslav Sobotka CSSD 29 Jan 2014 - in office CSSD + ANO 2011 + KDU-CSL

(1) KDU-CSL and ODA withdrew on 29 Nov 1997; PM Klaus resigned the next day.
(2) Four ministers belonged to a maverick wing of ODS; some of then joined the US party when it was founded on 17 Jan 1998.
(3) KDU-CSL announced its withdrawal on 31 Mar 2005; PM Gross resigned on 9 Apr.
(4) The LIDEM party split from VV on 3 May 2012 and replaced VV as the third coalition partner.


Czechoslovak
Governments 1988-1992

Parties: CSL: Czechoslovak People's Party CSS: Czechoslovak Socialist Party KSC: Communist Party of Czechoslovakia KDH: Christian Democratic Movement (Slovak lands-based) KDU/CSL: Christian Democratic Union/Czechoslovak People's Party (Czech lands-based) HZDS: Movement for a Democratic Slovakia OF: Civic Forum (Czech lands-based) ODS: Civic Democratic Party (Czech lands-based) ODU-VPN: Civic Democratic Union (Slovak lands-based) VPN: Public Against Violence (Slovak lands-based) n/p: n/p

Elections:: 8-9 Jun 1990 / 5-6 Jun 1992 (The Czech and Slovak Federative Republic ceased to exist on 31 Dec 1992)

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Ladislav Adamec KSC 11 Oct 1988 - 03 Dec 1989 KSC
Ladislav Adamec KSC 03 Dec 1989 - 10 Dec 1989 KSC + CSS + CSL + n/p (1)
Marißn Calfa KSC, VPN (2) 10 Dec 1989 - 27 Jun 1990 KSC + CSS + CSL + n/p (3)
Marißn Calfa VPN, ODU-VPN 27 Jun 1990 - 01 Jul 1992 OF/ODS + VPN/ODU-VPN + KDH (4)
Jan Strßsky ODS 01 Jul 1992 - 31 Dec 1992 ODS + HZDS + KDU/CSL

(1) CSS and CSL belonged to the so-called National Front of Czechs and Slovaks (NF), a structure hegemonized by the KSC.
(2) Prime minister Calfa left out the KSC on 18 Jan 1990 to join the VPN. Following the disolution of the VPN in Apr 1991, he became a leading member of ODU-VPN (see below).
(3) The CSL became the KDU-CSL in 1992. Four out of the seven ministers labeled as independents were in fact linked to the OF.
(4) Both the OF, active in the Czech Republic, and its Slovak partner, the VPN, were disbanded in Apr 1991. From the defunct OF several parties came out: the ODS, the Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA) and the Civic Movement (OH). From VPN, the ODU-VPN and the HZDS.


Danish
Governments since 1947

Parties: CD: Centre Democrats DR: Justice Party of Denmark KF: Conservative People's Party KrF: Christian People's Party LA: Liberal Alliance RV: Radikale Venstre ("Radical Left"), Danish Social Liberal Party SD: Social Democrats V: Venstre ("Left"), Liberal Party

Elections: 28 Oct 1947 / 5 Sep 1950 / 21 Apr 1953 / 22 Sep 1953 / 14 May 1957 / 15 Nov 1960/ 22 Sep 1964 / 22 Nov 1966 / 23 Jan 1968 / 21 Sep 1971 / 4 Dec 1973 / 9 Jan 1975 / 15 Feb 1977 / 23 Oct 1979 / 8 Dec 1981 / 10 Jan 1984 / 8 Sep 1987 / 10 May 1988 / 12 Dec 1990 / 21 Sep 1994 / 11 Mar 1998 / 20 Nov 2001 / 8 Feb 2005 / 13 Nov 2007 / 15 Sep 2011 / 18 Jun 2015

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Hans Hedtoft (I) SD 13 Nov 1947 - 30 Oct 1950 SD
Erik Eriksen V 30 Oct 1950 - 30 Sep 1953 V + KF
Hans Hedtoft (II) SD 30 Sep 1953 - 01 Feb 1955 SD
Hans Christian Hansen (I) SD 01 Feb 1955 - 28 May 1957 SD
Hans Christian Hansen (II) SD 28 May 1957 - 21 Feb 1960 SD + RV + DR
Viggo Kampmann (I) SD 21 Feb 1960 - 18 Nov 1960 SD + RV + DR
Viggo Kampmann (II) SD 18 Nov 1960 - 03 Sep 1962 SD + RV
Jens Otto Krag (I) SD 03 Sep 1962 - 29 Sep 1964 SD + RV
Jens Otto Krag (II) SD 29 Sep 1964 - 02 Feb 1968 SD
Hilmar Baunsgaard RV 02 Feb 1968 - 11 Oct 1971 RV + KF + V
Jens Otto Krag (III) SD 11 Oct 1971 - 05 Oct 1972 SD
Anker J°rgensen (I) SD 05 Oct 1972 - 19 Dec 1973 SD
Poul Hartling V 19 Dec 1973 - 13 Feb 1975 V
Anker J°rgensen (II) SD 13 Feb 1975 - 30 Aug 1978 SD + V
Anker J°rgensen (III) SD 30 Aug 1978 - 26 Oct 1979 SD + V
Anker J°rgensen (IV) SD 26 Oct 1979 - 30 Dec 1981 SD
Anker J°rgensen (V) SD 30 Dec 1981 - 10 Sep 1982 SD
Poul SchlŘter (I) KF 10 Sep 1982 - 10 Sep 1987 KF + V + CD + KrF
Poul SchlŘter (II) KF 10 Sep 1987 - 03 Jun 1988 KF + V + CD + KrF
Poul SchlŘter (III) KF 03 Jun 1988 - 18 Dec 1990 KF + V + RV
Poul SchlŘter (IV) KF 18 Dec 1990 - 25 Jan 1993 KF + V
Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (I) SD 25 Jan 1993 - 27 Sep 1994 SD + RV + CD + KrF
Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (II) SD 27 Sep 1994 - 30 Dec 1996 SD + RV + CD
Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (III) SD 30 Dec 1996 - 23 Mar 1998 SD + RV
Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (IV) SD 23 Mar 1998 - 27 Nov 2001 SD + RV
Anders Fogh Rasmussen (I) V 27 Nov 2001 - 18 Feb 2005 V + KF
Anders Fogh Rasmussen (II) V 18 Feb 2005 - 23 Nov 2007 V + KF
Anders Fogh Rasmussen (III) V 23 Nov 2007 - 05 Apr 2009 V + KF
Lars L°kke Rasmussen (I) V 05 Apr 2009 - 03 Oct 2011 V + KF
Helle Thorning-Schmidt (I) SD 03 Oct 2011 - 03 Feb 2014 SD + RV + SF
Helle Thorning-Schmidt (II) SD 03 Feb 2014 - 28 Jun 2015 SD + RV
Lars L°kke Rasmussen (II) V 28 Jun 2015 - 28 Nov 2016 V
Lars L°kke Rasmussen (III) V 28 Nov 2016 - in office V + LA + KF


Estonian
Governments since 1990

Parties: EA: Progressive Party ERSP: Estonian national Independence Party ERL: Estonian People's Union (called EME to 1999) Isamaaliit: Pro Patria Union (merger of RK Isamaa and ERSP since 2 Dec 1995) IRL (Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit): Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (2006) Keskerakond: Estonian Center Party KMU: Coalition Party and Rural Union (comprising Estonian Coalition Party (KE or KMU-K), Estonian Rural Union (EM or KMU-M), Estonian Country People's Party (EME), Estonian Pensioners' and Families' League (EPPL) and Farmers' Assembly (PK) Liberaalid: Liberals M§§dukad: Moderates Parempool: Rightists Rahvarinne: Popular Front of Estonia Reformierakond: Estonian Reform Party ResP: Union for the Republic-Res Publica RK 'Isamaa': National Coalition Party Pro Patria SDE: Social Democratic Party (2004, previously the Moderates)

Elections: 21 Mar 1990 (Soviet era) / 20 Sep 1992 / 5 Mar 1995 / 7 Mar 1999 / 2 Mar 2003 / 4 Mar 2007 / 6 Mar 2011 / 1 Mar 2015

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Edgar Savisaar Rahvarinne 03 Apr 1990 - 30 Jan 1992 Rahavarinne + n/p
Tiit Vńhi (I) n/p 30 Jan 1992 - 21 Oct 1992 n/p
Mart Laar (I) RK Isamaa 21 Oct 1992 - 08 Nov 1994 RK Isamaa + ERSP + M§§dukad + Liberaalid
Andres Tarand n/p 08 Nov 1994 - 17 Apr 1995 RK Isamaa + ERSP + M§§dukad + Liberaalid/Reformierakond + Parempool
Tiit Vńhi (II) KMU-K 17 Apr 1995 - 06 Nov 1995 KMU + Keskerakond (1)
Tiit Vńhi (III) KMU-K 06 Nov 1995 - 17 Mar 1997 KMU + Reformierakond (2)
Mart Siimann KMU-K 17 Mar 1997 - 25 Mar 1999 KMU + EA
Mart Laar (II) Isamaaliit 25 Mar 1999 - 28 Jan 2002 Isamaaliit + Reformierakond + M§§dukad
Siim Kallas Reformierakond 28 Jan 2002 - 10 Apr 2003 Reformierakond + Keskerakond
Juhan Parts ResP 10 Apr 2003 - 13 Apr 2005 ResP + Reformierakond + ERL
Andrus Ansip (I) Reformierakond 13 Apr 2005 - 05 Apr 2007 Reformierakond + Keskerakond + ERL
Andrus Ansip (II) Reformierakond 05 Apr 2007 - 06 Apr 2011 Reformierakond + IRL + SDE (3)
Andrus Ansip (III) Reformierakond 06 Apr 2011 - 26 Mar 2014 Reformierakond + IRL
Taavi R§ivas (I) Reformierakond 26 Mar 2014 - 09 Apr 2015 Reformierakond + SDE
Taavi R§ivas (II) Reformierakond 09 Apr 2015 - 23 Nov 2016 Reformierakond + SDE + IRL
JŘri Ratas Keskerakond 23 Nov 2016 - in office Keskerakond + SDE + IRL

(1) Keskerakond withdrew on 11 Oct 1995.
(2) Reformierakond withdrew on 21 Nov 1996.
(3) SDE ministers were sacked on 21 May 2009.


Finnish
Governments since 1987

Parties: KD: Christian Democrats (SKL to 2011) Keskusta: Centre Party KOK: national Coalition Party PS: True Finns RKP/SFP: Swedish People's Party in Finland SDP: Finnish Social Democratic Party SKL: Finnish Christian League (renamed KD in 2001) SMP: Finnish Rural Party VAS: Left-Wing Alliance; VIHR: Green League

Elections: 15-16 Mar 1987 / 17 Mar 1991 / 19 Mar 1995 / 21 Mar 1999 / 16 Mar 2003 / 18 Mar 2007 / 17 Apr 2011 / 19 Apr 2015

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Harri Holkeri KOK 30 Apr 1987 - 26 Apr 1991 KOK + SDP + RKP/SFP + SMP (1)
Esko Aho Keskusta 26 Apr 1991 - 13 Apr 1995 Keskusta + KOK + RKP/SFP + SKL (2)
Paavo Lipponen (I) SDP 13 Apr 1995 - 15 Apr 1999 SDP + KOK + RKP/SFP + VAS + VIHR
Paavo Lipponen (II) SDP 15 Apr 1999 - 17 Apr 2003 SDP + KOK + RKP/SFP + VAS + VIHR (3)
Anneli Jńńtteenmńki Keskusta 17 Apr 2003 - 18 Jun 2003 Keskusta + SDP + RKP/SFP
Matti Vanhanen (I) Keskusta 24 Jun 2003 - 19 Apr 2007 Keskusta + SDP + RKP/SFP
Matti Vanhanen (II) Keskusta 19 Apr 2007 - 22 Jun 2010 Keskusta + KOK + RKP/SFP + VIHR
Mari Kiviniemi Keskusta 22 Jun 2010 - 22 Jun 2011 Keskusta + KOK + RKP/SFP + VIHR
Jyrki Katainen KOK 22 Jun 2011 - 24 Jun 2014 KOK + SDP + RKP/SFP + VAS + VIHR + KD
Alexander Stubb KOK 24 Jun 2014 - 29 May 2015 KOK + SDP + RKP/SFP + VIHR + KD (5)
Juha Sipilń Keskusta 29 May 2015 - in office Keskusta + PS + KOK

(1) SMP withdrew on 28 Aug 1990.
(2) SKL withdrew on 26 Jun 1994.
(3) VIHR withdrew on 31 May 2002.
(4) VAS withdrew on 4 Apr 2014.
(5) VIHR withdrew on 26 Sep 2014.


French
Governments since 1988

Parties: DL: Liberal Democracy (disbanded 21 Sep 2002) EELV: Europe EcologyľThe Greens; PE: Ecologist Party (splinter of EELV in 2015, part of UDE to 2016); FRS: Forum of Social Republican (linked to UMP, renamed PCD in 2009) GE: Ecology Generation LR: The Republicans REM: The Republic Forward! LV: The Greens MDC: Citizens Movement MDR: Movement of Reformers MoDem: Democratic Movement MRG: Left Radical Movement (then PRS) PCD: Christian Democratic Party (FRS to 2009) PCF: French Communist Party PRG: Radical Party of the Left PRS: Radical Socialist Party (then PRG) PS: Socialist Party PSLE (NC): The New Center/European Social Liberal Party (splinters of UDF, linked to UMP) Rad.: Radical Party (member of UDF to 2002; then, linked to UMP) RPR: Rally for the Republic (disbanded 21 Sep 2002) UDE: Union of Democrats and Ecologists (coalition) UDF: Union for the French Democracy (confederation to 1998; then, single party) UMP: Union for a Popular Movement (founded 23 Apr 2002, including RPR and DL, renamed LR in 2015)

Elections: 5-12 Jun 1988 / 21-28 Mar 1993 / 25 May-1 Jun 1997 / 9-16 Jun 2002 / 10-17 Jun 2007 / 10-17 Jun 2012

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Michel Rocard (I) PS 10 May 1988 - 23 Jun 1988 PS + UDF + MRG + GE
Michel Rocard (II) PS 23 Jun 1988 - 15 May 1991 PS + UDF + MRG + MDR + GE
╔dith Cresson PS 15 May 1991 - 02 Apr 1992 PS + MRG + MDR + GE
Pierre BÚrÚgovoy PS 02 Apr 1992 - 29 Mar 1993 PS + MRG + MDR
╔douard Balladur RPR 29 Mar 1993 - 18 May 1995 RPR + UDF
Alain JuppÚ (I) RPR 18 May 1995 - 07 Nov 1995 RPR + UDF
Alain JuppÚ (II) RPR 07 Nov 1995 - 03 Jun 1997 RPR + UDF
Lionel Jospin PS 03 Jun 1997 - 06 May 2002 PS + PCF + PRS/PRG + MDC + LV
Jean-Pierre Raffarin (I) DL 06 May 2002 - 17 Jun 2002 RPR + UDF + DL
Jean-Pierre Raffarin (II) DL/UMP 17 Jun 2002 - 31 Mar 2004 UMP + UDF (1)
Jean-Pierre Raffarin (III) UMP 31 Mar 2004 - 31 May 2005 UMP + UDF
Dominique de Villepin UMP 31 May 2005 - 17 May 2007 UMP
Franšois Fillon (I) UMP 17 May 2007 - 19 Jun 2007 UMP + Rad. + PSLE (NC) + FRS
Franšois Fillon (II) UMP 19 Jun 2007 - 14 Nov 2010 UMP + Rad. + PSLE (NC) + FRS/PCD
Franšois Fillon (III) UMP 14 Nov 2010 - 16 May 2012 UMP + PSLE (NC) + Les Progressistes
Jean-Marc Ayrault (I) PS 16 May 2012 - 18 Jun 2012 PS + PRG + EELV
Jean-Marc Ayrault (II) PS 18 Jun 2012 - 02 Apr 2014 PS + PRG + EELV
Manuel Valls (I) PS 02 Apr 2014 - 26 Aug 2014 PS + PRG
Manuel Valls (II) PS 26 Aug 2014 - 06 Dec 2016 PS + PRG + UDE (2)
Bernard Cazeneuve PS 06 Dec 2016 - 10 May 2017 PS + PRG + PE
╔douard Philippe LR 15 May 2017 - in office LR + PS + REM + MoDem + PRG + n/p (3)

(1) RPR and DL ceased to exist on 21 Sep 2002 as parts of the process of creation of the new UMP, which was first launched on 23 Apr 2002 by supporters of president Chirac and officially founded in its constituent congress on 17 Nov 2002. As for the UDF, two members out of three, the Radical Party (Rad.) and the Popular Party for the French Democracy (PPDF), also joined UMP, leaving the Democratic Force (FD) as the sole member of the UDF.
(2) UDE joined on 11 Feb 2016.
(e) PS and LR ministers, including PM ╔douard Philippe, are dissidents from their parties.


German Federal
Governments since 1949

Parties: BHE: League of Expellees and Deprived of Rights CDU: Christian Democratic Union CSU: Christian Social Union DP: German Party FDP: Free Democratic Party FVP: Liberal People's Party (1956-1957) SPD: Social Democratic Party Die GrŘnen: The Greens

Elections: 14 Aug 1949 / 6 Sep 1953 / 15 Sep 1957 / 17 Sep 1961 / 19 Sep 1965 / 28 Sep 1969 / 19 Nov 1972 / 3 Oct 1976 / 5 Oct 1980 / 6 Mar 1983 / 25 Jan 1987 / 2 Dec 1990 / 16 Oct 1994 / 27 Sep 1998 / 22 Sep 2002 / 18 Sep 2005 / 27 Sep 2009 / 22 Sep 2013

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Konrad Adenauer (I) CDU 20 Sep 1949 - 20 Oct 1953 CDU + CSU + FDP + DP
Konrad Adenauer (II) CDU 20 Oct 1953 - 29 Oct 1957 CDU + CSU + FDP/FVP + DP + BHE (1)
Konrad Adenauer (III) CDU 29 Oct 1957 - 14 Nov 1961 CDU + CSU + DP
Konrad Adenauer (IV) CDU 14 Nov 1961 - 14 Dec 1962 CDU + CSU + FDP
Konrad Adenauer (V) CDU 14 Dec 1962 - 16 Oct 1963 CDU + CSU + FDP
Ludwig Erhard (I) CDU 17 Oct 1963 - 26 Oct 1965 CDU + CSU + FDP
Ludwig Erhard (II) CDU 26 Oct 1965 - 01 Dec 1966 CDU + CSU + FDP
Kurt Georg Kiesinger CDU 01 Dec 1966 - 21 Oct 1969 CDU + CSU + SPD
Willy Brandt (I) SPD 21 Oct 1969 - 14 Dec 1972 SPD + FDP
Willy Brandt (II) SPD 15 Dec 1972 - 07 May 1974 SPD + FDP
Helmut Schmidt (I) SPD 16 May 1974 - 15 Dec 1976 SPD + FDP
Helmut Schmidt (II) SPD 15 Dec 1976 - 05 Nov 1980 SPD + FDP
Helmut Schmidt (III) SPD 05 Nov 1980 - 01 Oct 1982 SPD + FDP
Helmut Kohl (I) CDU 01 Oct 1982 - 30 Mar 1983 CDU + CSU + FDP
Helmut Kohl (II) CDU 30 Mar 1983 - 12 Mar 1987 CDU + CSU + FDP
Helmut Kohl (III) CDU 12 Mar 1987 - 18 Jan 1991 CDU + CSU + FDP
Helmut Kohl (IV) CDU 18 Jan 1991 - 17 Nov 1994 CDU + CSU + FDP
Helmut Kohl (V) CDU 17 Nov 1994 - 27 Oct 1998 CDU + CSU + FDP
Gerhard Schr÷der (I) SPD 27 Oct 1998 - 22 Oct 2002 SPD + Die GrŘnen
Gerhard Schr÷der (II) SPD 22 Oct 2002 - 22 Nov 2005 SPD + Die GrŘnen
Angela Merkel (I) CDU 22 Nov 2005 - 28 Oct 2009 CDU + CSU + SPD
Angela Merkel (II) CDU 28 Oct 2009 - 17 Dec 2013 CDU + CSU + FDP
Angela Merkel (III) CDU 17 Dec 2013 - in office CDU + CSU + SPD

(1) The FVP was founded in Feb 1956 by splinters of FDP opposed to the party's parliamentary caucus decision to quit the Government coalition. Four Cabinet ministers, hitherto members of FDP and including vicechancellor Franz BlŘcher, decided to remain in office as FVP members. The two minister of BHE joined CDU in 1956.


German Democratic
Governments 1989-1990

Parties and associations: BFD: Free Democrats Alliance CDUD: Christian Democratic Union of Germany (merged into West German CDU on Dec 1,1990) DA: Democratic Awakening DBD: Democratic Peasants' Party of Germany DJ: Democracy Now DSU: German Christian Social Union GL: Green League GP: Green Party IFM: Initiative for Peace and Human Rights LDPD: Liberal Democratic Party of Germany NDPD: National Democratic Party of Germany NF: New Forum PDS: Party of the Democratic Socialism (to Feb 4, 1990 called SED-PDS) SED: Socialist Unity Party of Germany (communist, from Dec 15, 1989 called SED-PDS) SPD: Social Democratic Party UFV: Independent Women's Association

Elections: 18 Mar 1990

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Hans Modrow (I) SED 13 Nov 1989 - 16 Nov 1989 SED
Hans Modrow (II) SED, SED-PDS 16 Nov 1989 - 05 Feb 1990 SED-PDS + LDPD + DBD + CDUD + NDPD (1)
Hans Modrow (III) PDS 05 Feb 1990 - 12 Apr 1990 PDS + LDPD + DBD + CDUD + NDPD + DA + SPD + UFV + NF + GP + GL + DJ + IFM (2)
Lothar de MaiziŔre CDUD 12 Apr 1990 - 02 Oct 1990 CDUD/CDU + DSU + DA + SPD + BFD (3)

(1) LDPD, DBD, CDUD and NDPD belonged to the Nationale Front (NF), dominated by the SED.
(2) DA, SPD, UFV, NF, GP, GL, DJ and IFM were given a ministry without portolio.
(3) BFD withdrew on 24 Jul 1990. The GDR ceased to exist on 3 Oct 1990 upon incorporation into the Federal Republic of Germany.


Greek
Governments since 1981

Parties: ANEL: Independent Greeks KKE: Communist Party LAOS: Popular Orthodox Rally ND: New Democracy PASOK: Panhellenic Socialist Movement SYRIZA: Coalition of the Radical Left

Elections: 18 Oct 1981 / 2 Jun 1985 / 18 Jun 1989 / 5 Nov 1989 / 8 Apr 1990 / 10 Oct 1993 / 22 Sep 1996 / 9 Apr 2000 / 7 Mar 2004 / 16 Sep 2007 / 4 Oct 2009 / 6 May 2012 / 17 Jun 2012 / 25 Jan 2015

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Andreas Papandreou (I) PASOK 21 Oct 1981 - 26 Jul 1985 PASOK
Andreas Papandreou (II) PASOK 26 Jul 1985 - 02 Jul 1989 PASOK
Tzannis Tzannetakis ND 02 Jul 1989 - 11 Oct 1989 ND + KKE
Ioannis Grivas n/p (acting) 11 Oct 1989 - 23 Nov 1989 n/p
Xenophon Zolotas n/p 23 Nov 1989 - 11 Apr 1990 ND + PASOK + KKE
Konstantinos Mitsotakis ND 11 Apr 1990 - 13 Oct 1993 ND
Andreas Papandreou (III) PASOK 13 Oct 1993 - 22 Jan 1996 PASOK
Kostas Simitis (I) PASOK 22 Jan 1996 - 24 Sep 1996 PASOK
Kostas Simitis (II) PASOK 24 Sep 1996 - 13 Apr 2000 PASOK
Kostas Simitis (III) PASOK 13 Apr 2000 - 10 Mar 2004 PASOK
Kostas Karamanlis (I) ND 10 Mar 2004 - 19 Sep 2007 ND
Kostas Karamanlis (II) ND 19 Sep 2007 - 06 Oct 2009 ND
Georgios Papandreou (I) PASOK 06 Oct 2009 - 07 Sep 2010 PASOK
Georgios Papandreou (II) PASOK 07 Sep 2010 - 17 Jun 2011 PASOK
Georgios Papandreou (III) PASOK 17 Jun 2011 - 11 Nov 2011 PASOK
Loukas Papademos n/p 11 Nov 2011 - 16 May 2012 PASOK + ND + LAOS + n/p (1)
Panagiotis Pikrammenos n/p (interim) 16 May 2012 - 21 Jun 2012 n/p
Antonis Samaras (I) ND 21 Jun 2012 - 25 Jun 2013 ND + n/p (2)
Antonis Samaras (II) ND 25 Jun 2013 - 10 Jun 2014 ND + PASOK
Antonis Samaras (III) ND 10 Jun 2014 - 27 Jan 2015 ND + PASOK
Alexis Tsipras (I) SYRIZA 27 Jan 2015 - 28 Aug 2015 SYRIZA + ANEL
Vassiliki Thanou-Christophilou n/p (interim) 28 Aug 2015 - 23 Sep 2015 n/p
Alexis Tsipras (II) SYRIZA 23 Sep 2015 - in office SYRIZA + ANEL

(1) LAOS withdrew in Feb 2012.
(2) Independent ministers designated by PASOK and Dimar parties. Dimar ministers withdrew from the coalition on Jun 21, 2013.


Hungarian
Governments since 1988

Parties: MSzMP: Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (communist, became the MSzP on Oct 7, 1989); MSzP: Hungarian Socialist Party; MDF: Hungarian Democratic Forum; FKgP: Independent Smallholders Party; KdNP: Christian Democratic People's Party; SzDSz: Free Democrats Alliance; Fidesz-MPP: Federation of Young Democrats-Hungarian Civic Party; Fidesz-MPSz: Federation of Young Democrats-Hungarian Civic Alliance

Elections: 25 Mar-8 Apr 1990 / 9-28 May 1994 / 10-24 May 1998 / 7-21 Apr 2002 / 9-23 Apr 2006 / 11-25 Apr 2010 / 6 Apr 2014

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Miklˇs NÚmeth MSzMP/MSzP 23 Nov 1988 - 03 May 1990 MSzMP/MSzP
Jˇzsef Antall MDF 03 May 1990 - 12 Dec 1993 MDF + FKgP + KdNP
PÚter Boross MDF 12 Dec 1993 - 15 Jul 1994 MDF + FKgP + KdNP
Gyula Horn MSzP 15 Jul 1994 - 06 Jul 1998 MSzP + SzDSz
Viktor Orbßn (I) Fidesz-MPP 06 Jul 1998 - 27 May 2002 Fidesz-MPP + FKgP + MDF
PÚter Medgyessy n/p 27 May 2002 - 27 Aug 2004 MSzP + SzDSz
Ferenc Gyurcsßny (I) (1) MSzP 27 Aug 2004 - 09 Jun 2006 MSzP + SzDSz
Ferenc Gyurcsßny (II) MSzP 09 Jun 2006 - 14 Apr 2009 MSzP + SzDSz (2)
Gordon Bajnai n/p 14 Apr 2009 - 29 May 2010 MSzP
Viktor Orbßn (II) Fidesz-MPSz 29 May 2010 - 06 Jun 2014 Fidesz-MPSz + KdNP
Viktor Orbßn (III) Fidesz-MPSz 06 Jun 2014 - in office Fidesz-MPSz + KdNP

(1) Ferenc Gyurcsßny acted as prime minister from 27 Aug 2004 following PÚter Medgyessy's resignation two days before; the Parliament endorsed Gyurcsßny as incumbent prime minister on 29 Sep.
(2) SzDSz withdrew on 30 Apr 2008.


Icelandic
Governments since 1988

Parties: AB: People's Alliance (Al■ř­ubandalagi­, merged into SF in 1998) AF: Social Democratic Party (Al■ř­uflokkurinn, merged into SF in 1998) BF: Citizens' Party (Borgaraflokkurinn, 1987-1994) BF: Bright Future (Bj÷rtframtÝ­, 2012-) FSF: Progressive Party (Framsˇknarflokkurinn) SF: Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin) SSF: Independence Party (SjßlfstŠ­isflokkurinn) VG: Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin) Vi­reisn: Reform Party

Elections: 20 Apr 1991 / 8 Apr 1995 / 8 May 1999 / 10 May 2003 / 12 May 2007 / 25 Apr 2009 / 27 Apr 2013 / 29 Oct 2016

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
SteingrÝmur Hermannsson FSF 28 Sep 1988 - 30 Apr 1991 FSF + AF + AB + BF (1)
DavÝd Oddsson (I) SSF 30 Apr 1991 - 23 Apr 1995 SSF + AF
DavÝd Oddsson (II) SSF 23 Apr 1995 - 28 May 1999 SSF + FSF
DavÝd Oddsson (III) SSF 28 May 1999 - 23 May 2003 SSF + FSF
DavÝd Oddsson (IV) SSF 23 May 2003 - 15 Sep 2004 SSF + FSF
Halldˇr ┴sgrÝmsson FSF 15 Sep 2004 - 15 Jun 2006 FSF + SSF
Geir Hilmar Haarde (I) SSF 15 Jun 2006 - 24 May 2007 SSF + FSF
Geir Hilmar Haarde (II) SSF 24 May 2007 - 01 Feb 2009 SSF + SF
Jˇhanna Sigurdardˇttir (I) SF 01 Feb 2009 - 10 May 2009 SF + VG
Jˇhanna Sigurdardˇttir (II) SF 10 May 2009 - 23 May 2013 SF + VG
Sigmundur DavÝd Gunnlaugsson FSF 23 May 2013 - 07 Apr 2016 FSF + SSF
Sigurdur Ingi Jˇhannsson FSF 07 Apr 2016 - 11 Jan 2017 FSF + SSF
Bjarni Benediktsson SSF 11 Jan 2017 - in office SSF + Vi­reisn + BF

(1) The Citizens' Party (BF) split from the SSF in 1987 and joined Hermannsson's Cabinet on 10 Sep 1989.


Irish
Governments since 1982

Parties: FF: Fianna Fßil FG: Fine Gael PD: Progressive Democrats LP Labor Party DL: Democratic Left GP: Green Party

Elections: 18 Feb 1982 / 24 Nov 1982 / 17 Feb 1987 / 15 Jun 1989 / 25 Nov 1992 / 6 Jun 1997 / 17 May 2002 / 24 May 2007 / 25 Feb 2011 / 26 Feb 2016

Prime Minister PM affiliation Tenure Partisan composition
Charles Haughey (II) FF 09 Mar 1982 - 14 Dec 1982 FF
Garret FitzGerald (II) FG 14 Dec 1982 - 10 Mar 1987 FG + LP
Charles Haughey (III) FF 10 Mar 1987 ľ 12 Jul 1989 FF
Charles Haughey (IV) FF 12 Jul 1989 - 11 Feb 1992 FF + PD
Albert Reynolds (I) FF 11 Feb 1992 - 12 Jan 1993 FF + PD (1)
Albert Reynolds (II) FF 12 Jan 1993 - 15 Dec 1994 FF + LP (2)
John Bruton FG 15 Dec 1994 - 26 Jun 1997 FG + LP + DL
Bertie Ahern (I) FF 26 Jun 1997 - 06 Jun 2002 FF + PD
Bertie Ahern (II) FF 06 Jun 2002 - 14 Jun 2007 FF + PD
Bertie Ahern (III) FF 14 Jun 2007 - 07 May 2008 FF + PD + GP
Brian Cowen FF 07 May 2008 - 09 Mar 2011 FF + PD + GP (3)
Enda Kenny (I) FG 09 Mar 2011 - 06 May 2016 FG + LP
Enda Kenny (II) FG 06 May 2016 - 14 Jun 2017 FG
Leo Varadkar FG 14 Jun 2017 - in office FG

(1) PD withdrew on 4 Nov 1992.
(2) LP withdrew on 17 Nov 1994.
(3) PD self-dissolved on 20 Nov 2009, leaving the Government as a two-party Cabinet. GP withdrew on 23 Jan 2011.

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