Leaders of India
(Republic of India)
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Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website. Comprehensive lists providing the rulers of the States are available at Rulers, in two parts: from A to L and from M to W.

Note: since the independence on 15 Aug 1947 to the proclamation of the Republic on 26 Jan 1950, the head of State was the British monarch, King George VI, represented by a Governor-General.

Parties: BJP: Indian People's Party/Bharatiya Janata Party BJS: Indian People's Union/Bharatiya Jana Sangh (+) BLD: Indian People's Party/Bharatiya Lok Dal (+) CPI(M): Communist Party of India (Marxist) INC: Indian National Congress (a.k.a. Indian Congress Party) INC(i): Indian National Congress-Indira Gandhi faction (+) JD: People's Party/Janata Dal JD(s): Janata Dal-Chandra Shekhar-faction (+) JP: People's Party/Janata Party (+) SHS: Shiv Sena Party TDP: Telugu Desam Party n/p: non-party;


Heads of State
Governors-General
Louis Francis Mountbatten            15 Aug 1947 - 21 Jun 1948 (+1979) 
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari          21 Jun 1948 - 26 Jan 1950 (+1972)  
             
Presidents of the Union               
Rajendra Prasad                      26 Jan 1950 - 13 May 1962 (+1963)  
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan             13 May 1962 - 13 May 1967 (+1975)  
Zakir Husain                         13 May 1967 -  3 May 1969 (+1969)      
Varahgiri Venkata Giri                3 May 1969 - 20 Jul 1969 (+1980) (acting)
Mohammad Hidayatullah                20 Jul 1969 - 24 Aug 1969 (+1992) (acting)
Varahgiri Venkata Giri               24 Aug 1969 - 24 Aug 1974 (+1980)    
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed                 24 Aug 1974 - 11 Feb 1977 (+1977)     
Basappa Danappa Jatti                11 Feb 1977 - 25 Jul 1977 (+2002) (acting)
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy                 25 Jul 1977 - 25 Jul 1982 (+1996)            
Gyani Zail Singh                     25 Jul 1982 - 25 Jul 1987 (+1994)  
Ramaswamy Iyer Venkataraman          25 Jul 1987 - 25 Jul 1992 (+2009)         
Shankar Dayal Sharma                 25 Jul 1992 - 25 Jul 1997 (+1999)  
Kocheril Raman Narayanan             25 Jul 1997 - 25 Jul 2002 (+2005)  
Avul Pakiri Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam 25 Jul 2002 - 25 Jul 2007 (+2015)   
Pratibha Devisingh Patil             25 Jul 2007 - 25 Jul 2012
Pranab Kumar Mukherjee               25 Jul 2012 -

Prime Ministers
Jawaharlal Nehru                     15 Aug 1947 - 27 May 1964 (+1964) INC
Gulzarilal Nanda                     27 May 1964 -  2 Jun 1964 (+1998) INC
Lal Bahadur Shastri                   2 Jun 1964 - 11 Jan 1966 (+1966) INC
Gulzarilal Nanda                     11 Jan 1966 - 19 Jan 1966 (+1998) INC
Indira Gandhi                        19 Jan 1966 - 24 Mar 1977 (+1984) INC
Morarji Desai                        24 Mar 1977 - 28 Jul 1979 (+1995) JP
Charan Singh                         28 Jul 1979 - 14 Jan 1980 (+1987) JP/BLD
Indira Gandhi                        14 Jan 1980 - 31 Oct 1984 (+1984) INC(i)
Rajiv Gandhi                         31 Oct 1984 -  2 Dec 1989 (+1991) INC(i)
Vishwanath Pratap Singh               2 Dec 1989 - 10 Nov 1990 (+2008) JD 
Chandra Shekhar                      10 Nov 1990 - 21 Jun 1991 (+2007) JD(s)
Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao    21 Jun 1991 - 16 May 1996 (+2004) INC(i)
Atal Bihari Vajpayee                 16 May 1996 -  1 Jun 1996         BJP
Haradanahalli Dodde Deve Gowda        1 Jun 1996 - 21 Apr 1997         JD
Inder Kumar Gujral                   21 Apr 1997 - 19 Mar 1998 (+2012) JD
Atal Bihari Vajpayee                 19 Mar 1998 - 22 May 2004         BJP
Manmohan Singh                       22 May 2004 - 26 May 2014         INC 
Narendra Damodardas Modi             26 May 2014-                      BJP 

Speakers of the Lok Sabha
Ganesh Vasudeo Mavalankar            1952-1956 (+1956) INC
Madabushi Ananthasayanam Ayyangar    1956-1962 (+1978) INC
Sardar Hukam Singh                   1962-1967 (+1983) INC
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy                 1967-1969 (+1996) n/p 
Gurundhayal Singh Dhillion           1969-1975 (+1992) INC
Bali Ram Bhagat                      1976-1977 (+2011) INC
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy                 1977      (+1996) n/p
Kawdoor Sadaranda Hedge              1977-1980 (+1990) JP 
Balram Jakhar                        1980-1989 (+2016) INC(i) 
Rabi Ray                             1989-1991 (+2017) JD 
Shivraj Vishwanath Patil             1991-1996         INC(i)
Purno Agitok Sangma                  1996-1998 (+2016) INC(i)
Ganti Mohana Chandra Balayogi        1998-2002 (+2002) TDP      
Manohar Joshi                        2002-2004         SHS 
Somnath Chatterjee                   2004-2009         CPI(M)
Meira Kumar                          2009-2014         INC
Sumitra Mahajan                      2014-             BJP

Vicepresidents of the Republic
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan             1952-1962 (+1975) 
Zakir Husain                         1962-1967 (+1969) 
Varahgiri Venkata Giri               1967-1969 (+1980) 
Gopal Swarup Pathak                  1969-1974 (+1982)
Basappa Danappa Jatti                1974-1979 (+2002) 
Mohammad Hidayatullah                1979-1984 (+1992) 
Ramaswamy Iyer Venkataraman          1984-1987 (+2009)        
Shankar Dayal Sharma                 1987-1992 (+1999) 
Kocheril Raman Narayanan             1992-1997 (+2005) 
Krishan Kant                         1997-2002 (+2002)     
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat              2002-2007 (+2010)
Mohammad Hamid Ansari                2007-            

Chairmen of INC and INC(i)
Acharya Jivatram Bhagwandas Kripalani1946-1947 (+1982)
Pattabhi Sitaraimayya                1947-1949 (+1959)
Purshottam Das Tandon                1949-1950 (+1961)
Jawaharlal Nehru                     1950-1954 (+1964) 
Uchharangray Navalshankar Dhebar     1954-1959 (+1977) 
Indira Gandhi                        1959      (+1984)
Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy                1959-1964 (+1996) 
Kumaraswami Kamaraj                  1964-1968 (+1975)
Siddavanahalli Nijalingappa          1968-1969 (+2000)
Jagjivan Ram                         1969-1972 (+1986)
Shankar Dayal Sharma                 1971-1975 (+1999) 
Dev Kant Baruah 	             1975-1978 (+1996)
Indira Gandhi                        1978-1984 (+1984)    
Rajiv Gandhi                         1984-1991 (+1991) 
Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao    1991-1996 (+2004) 
Sitaram Kesri                        1996-1998 (+2000) 
Sonia Gandhi                         1998-            

Chairmen of BJP
Atal Bihari Vajpayee                 1980-1986         
Lal Krishna Advani                   1986-1991         
Murli Manohar Joshi                  1991-1993         
Lal Krishna Advani                   1993-1998         
Kushabhau Thakre                     1998-2000 (+2003) 
Bangaru Laxman                       2000-2001 (+2014)        
Jana Krishnamurthi                   2001-2002 (+2007)       
Venkaiah Naidu                       2002-2004        
Lal Krishna Advani                   2004-2006         
Rajnath Singh                        2006-2009
Nitin Gadkari                        2009-2013            
Rajnath Singh                        2013-2014
Amit Shah                            2014-

The BJS was founded on 21 Oct 1951. In Jan 1977 it merged with the BLD, George Fernandes' Socialist Party and several INC splinter groups to form the JP. The JP suffered a desintegration process and in Apr 1980 the major faction established the BJP.

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