Leaders of Iraq
(Republic of Iraq)
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Acronyms: ASU: Arab Socialist Union (Nasserist); Baath: Socialist Arab Rebirth Party; CPA: Coalition Provisional Authority (foreign occupation); DP: Dawa Party; DIP: Dawa Islamic Party; Hezbollah: Party of God; ICP: Iraqi Communist Party; IIP: Iraqi Islamic Party; INA: Iraqi National Accord; INC: Iraqi National Congress; KDP: Kurdistan Democratic Party; KIU: Kurdistan Islamic Union; NDP: National Democratic Party; ORHA: (US) Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance for postwar Iraq; PUK: Patriotic Union of Kurdistan; RCC: Revolutionary Command Council (ruling political/military junta); SCIRI: Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq; USCENTCOM: US (military) Central Command

Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website.


Heads of State
King
Faysal II ibn Ghazi al-Hashimi  4 Apr 1939 - 14 Jul 1958 (+1958)  (1)

Chairman of the Sovereignty Council
Muhammad Najib ar-Rubayi       14 Jul 1958 -  8 Feb 1963 (+1965)

Presidents of the Republic and the RCC
Abdel Salam Muhammad Aref       8 Feb 1963 - 13 Apr 1966 (+1966) military/ASU (2)
Abdel Rahman al-Bazzaz         13 Apr 1966 - 16 Apr 1966 (+1973) ASU (acting)
Abdek Rahman Muhammad Aref     16 Apr 1966 - 17 Jul 1968 (+2007) military/ASU
Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr           17 Jul 1968 - 16 Jul 1979 (+1982) military/Baath 
Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti      16 Jul 1979 -  9 Apr 2003 (+2006) Baath  

       ** vacant **             9 Apr 2003 - 28 Jun 2004         (3)  

Presidents of the Republic
Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawar     28 Jun 2004 -  7 Apr 2005         n/p (interim)
Jalal Talabani                  7 Apr 2005 - 24 Jul 2014         PUK (transitional to 22 Apr 2006)
Muhammad Fuad Masum            24 Jul 2014 -                     PUK 

(1) King Faysal ruled under the regency of Abdel Ilah ibn Ali (+1958) to 23 May 1953.
(2) Provisional president to 20 Nov 1963.
(3) The US-British invasion to disarm and topple the regime of Saddam Hussein began on 20 Mar 2003. On 9 Apr, advancing US troops took control of central Baghdad, marking the collapse of the Baath party regime but not yet the end of the war (which was announced by president George Bush on 1 May). A power vacuum existed de facto at least to the installation on 13 Jul 2003 by the occupant powers of a 25-member Iraq Governing Council (see below), which acted as the first post-Saddam national -but not sovereign- ruling institution.


Heads of Government
Prime Ministers
Hamdi al-Bajaji                 4 Jun 1944 - 23 Feb 1946 (+1948)
Sulayman Tawfiq Bey as-Suwaydi 23 Feb 1946 -  1 Jun 1946 (+1968)
Arshad al-Umari                 1 Jun 1946 - 21 Nov 1946 (+1978)
Nuri Pasha as-Said             21 Nov 1946 - 29 Mar 1947 (+1958) 
Salih Jabr                     29 Mar 1947 - 29 Jan 1948 (+1957)
Muhammad as-Sadr               29 Jan 1948 - 26 Jun 1948 (+1956)
Muzahim al-Bajaji              26 Jun 1948 -  6 Jan 1949 (+1982)
Nuri Pasha as-Said              6 Jan 1949 - 10 Dec 1949 (+1958)
Ali Jawdat al-Aiyubi           10 Dec 1949 -  5 Feb 1950 (+1968)
Sulayman Tawfiq Bey as-Suwaydi  5 Feb 1950 - 15 Sep 1950 (+1968)
Nuri Pasha as-Said             15 Sep 1950 - 12 Jul 1952 (+1958)
Mustafa Mahmud al-Umari        12 Jul 1952 - 23 Nov 1952 (+1962)
Nureddin Mahmud                23 Nov 1952 - 29 Jan 1953          military
Jamil Bey al-Midfai            29 Jan 1953 - 17 Sep 1953 (+1959)
Muhammad Fadhel al-Jamali      17 Sep 1953 - 29 Apr 1954 (+1997)
Arshad al-Umari                29 Apr 1954 -  4 Aug 1954 (+1978)
Nuri Pasha as-Said              4 Aug 1954 - 20 Jun 1957 (+1958)
Ali Jawdat al-Aiyubi           20 Jun 1957 - 15 Dec 1957 (+1969)
Abdel Wahhab Marjan            15 Dec 1957 -  3 Mar 1958 (+1964)
Nuri Pasha as-Said              3 Mar 1958 - 18 May 1958 (+1958)
Ahmad Mukhtar Baban            18 May 1958 - 14 Jul 1958 (+1958)
Abdel Karim Kassem             14 Jul 1958 -  8 Feb 1963 (+1963) military 
Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr            8 Feb 1963 - 18 Nov 1963 (+1982) military/Baath
Tahir Yahya                    20 Nov 1963 -  6 Sep 1965 (+1986) military/ASU
Aref Abdel Razzaq               6 Sep 1965 - 21 Nov 1965 (+2007) military/ASU
Abdel Rahman al-Bazzaz         21 Nov 1965 -  9 Aug 1966 (+1973)
Naji Talib                      9 Aug 1966 - 10 May 1967 (+2012)
Abdel Rahman Muhammad Aref     10 May 1967 - 10 Jul 1967 (+2007) military/ASU
Tahir Yahya                    10 Jul 1967 - 17 Jul 1968 (+1986) military/ASU
Abdel Razzaq Said an-Najif     17 Jul 1968 - 30 Jul 1968 (+1978) military
Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr           31 Jul 1968 - 16 Jul 1979 (+1982) military/Baath
Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti      16 Jul 1979 - 23 Mar 1991 (+2006) Baath
Saadun Hammadi                 23 Mar 1991 - 13 Sep 1991 (+2007) Baath            
Muhammad Hamzah az-Zubaydi     16 Sep 1991 -  5 Sep 1993 (+2005) Baath 
Ahmad Hussein as-Samarraj       5 Sep 1993 - 29 May 1994         Baath
Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti      29 May 1994 -  9 Apr 2003 (+2006) Baath 

  ** power vacuum **            9 Apr 2003 - 13 Jul 2003

Chairmen of the Iraq Governing Council (IGC)
Muhammad Bahr al-Ulum          13 Jul 2003 - 31 Jul 2003 (+2015) n/p, Shiite (acting)
Ibrahim ash-Shaiqr al-Jaafari   1 Aug 2003 - 31 Aug 2003         DIP, Shiite
Ahmad Abdel Hadi al-Chalabi     1 Sep 2003 - 30 Sep 2003 (+2015) INC, Shiite
Iyad Hashim al-Allawi           1 Oct 2003 - 31 Oct 2003         INA, Shiite
Jalal Talabani                  1 Nov 2003 - 30 Nov 2003         PUK, Kurdish
Abdel Aziz Muhsin al-Hakim      1 Dec 2003 - 31 Dec 2003 (+2009) SCIRI, Shiite
Adnan Muzahim al-Pachachi       1 Jan 2004 - 31 Jan 2004         n/p, Sunni       
Muhsin Abdel Hamid              1 Feb 2004 - 29 Feb 2004         IIP, Sunni
Muhammad Bahr al-Ulum           1 Mar 2004 - 31 Mar 2004 (+2015) n/p, Shiite
Massud Mustafa al-Barzani       1 Apr 2004 - 30 Apr 2004         KDP, Kurdish
Ezzedine Salim                  1 May 2004 - 17 May 2004 (+2004) DIP, Shiite
Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawar     17 May 2004 -  1 Jun 2004         n/p, Sunni 

President of the (interim) Council of Ministers
Iyad Hashim al-Allawi           1 Jun 2004 - 28 Jun 2004         INA (interim)

President of the Iraq Interim Government (IIG)
Iyad Hashim al-Allawi          28 Jun 2004 -  3 May 2005         INA

President of the Iraq Transitional Government (ITG)
Ibrahim ash-Shaiqr al-Jaafari   3 May 2005 - 20 May 2006         DIP

Prime Ministers
Nuri Kamil al-Maliki           20 May 2006 - 8 Sep 2014          DIP
Haider al-Abadi                 8 Sep 2014 -                     DIP

(4) The 25-member IGC (in arab, Majlis al-Hukm) was established by the CPA and held its first meeting in Baghdad on 13 Jul 2003. It acted as the first national ruling institution in post-Saddam Iraq, but was not a sovereign body as it was subordinated to the CPA and the USCENTCOM. A collective and monthly rotating Presidency of the Council was established on 28 Jul 2003. A Cabinet of ministers was appointed on 1 Sep 2003 (sworn in on 3 Sep). IGC members that didn't fill the post of rotating president were: Nasir Kamel al-Chadirji (NDP, Sunni); Ahmad Shiyya al-Barak Al Bu Sultan (n/p, Shiite); Aqila al-Hashimi (n/p, Shiite + 25 Sep 2003); Salama al-Khufaji (n/p, Shiite, from 8 Dec 2003); Raja Habib al-Khuzai (n/p, Shiite); Hamid Majid Mussa al-Bayati(ICP, Shiite); Samir Shakir Mahmud as-Sumaydi (n/p, Sunni); Mahmud Ali Othman (n/p, Sunni Kurd); Salah ad-Din Muhammad Baha' ad-Din (KIU, Sunni Kurd); Yunadim Yusuf Kana (n/p, Assyrian Christian); Muwaffaq ar-Rubayi (n/p, Shiite); Dara Nur ad-Din (n/p, Sunni Kurd); Songul Chapuk (n/p, Turkoman); Wail Abdel Latif (n/p, Shiite); Abdel Karim Mahud al-Muhammadawi (Hezbollah, Shiite); Muwafaq ar-Ruba (DP, Shiite). On 1 Jun 2004 the IGC was disbanded and replaced by a new Cabinet of Ministers, led by a Prime Minister.


Foreign Occupation - CPA and military command (2003-2011)

US civilian administrators 
Jay M. Garner (Head of ORHA)   21 Apr 2003 -  1 Jun 2003          (5)
L. Paul Bremer (Head of CPA)   16 May 2003 - 28 Jun 2004          (6)

Commanders of the military occupation
Commanders-in-chief/USCENTCOM
Gen. Tommy R. Franks            9 Apr 2003 -  7 Jul 2003          United States
Gen. John P. Abizaid            7 Jul 2003 - 16 Mar 2007          United States
Adm. William J. Fallon         16 Mar 2007 - 28 Mar 2008          United States
Lt. Gen. Martin E. Dempsey     28 Mar 2008 - 31 Oct 2008          United States (acting)
Gen. David H. Petraeus         31 Oct 2008 - 30 Jun 2010          United States
Lt. Gen. John R. Allen         30 Jun 2010 - 11 Aug 2010          United States
Gen. James N. Mattis           11 Aug 2010 - 15 Dec 2011          United States 

Coalition Forces Land Component Command (CFLCC) 
Lt. Gen. David D. McKiernan     9 Apr 2003 - 14 Jun 2003          United States (7)

Coalition Joint Task Force 7 (CJTF 7) 
Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez    14 Jun 2003 - 15 May 2004          United States (7)
 
 1st Armored Division                            United States (as of 1 Jan 2004, see 8)    
 82nd Airborne Division                          United States (as of 1 Jan 2004, see 9)
 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized)              United States (as of 1 Jan 2004, see 10)
 101st Airborne Division                         United States (as of 1 Jan 2004, see 11)
 Multi-National Division South-East (MND-SE)     United Kingdom (12)
 Multi-National Division Central-South (MND-CS)  Poland (13)

Multi-National Force-Iraq (MNF-I)
Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez    15 May 2004 -  4 Jun 2004          United States
Gen. George W. Casey            4 Jun 2004 - 10 Feb 2007          United States
Gen. David H. Petraeus         10 Feb 2007 - 16 Sep 2008          United States
Gen. Raymond T. Odierno        16 Sep 2008 -  1 Jan 2010          United States

United States Forces–Iraq (USF-I)
Gen. Lloyd J. Austin            1 Jan 2010 - 15 Dec 2011          United States

(5) The ORHA was a US agency created on 20 Jan 2003 by presidential directive, organized within the US Defence Department and put under military command of the USCENTCOM. The first head of the ORHA, retired US Lt. Gen. Jay Garner, acted as top administrator of the occupied Iraq from his arrival to Baghdad, on 21 Apr, to the arrival of special ambassador Paul Bremer, on 12 May. On 1 Jun, the ORHA was superseded by the CPA.

(6) On 6 May 2003 president George Bush appointed retired diplomat Paul Bremer as his special envoy to Iraq, making him the senior civilian in charge of rebuilding the country's Government and infrastructure. Bremer arrived Baghdad on 12 May and in the next days was taking over his functions as head of the CPA, which was formally constitued on 16 May. The CPA, filled mainly with US officials, took over from the ORHA, superseding it, on 1 Jun 2003. Bremer did not report to the USCENTCOM but to the White House through the Defence Secretary.

(7) The CFLCC and then its successor, the CJTF 7, were the commands controlling all military ground forces, US and non-US, deployed in occupied Iraq. The CFLCC reported to the Third Army/Army Central Command (ARCENT), while the CJTF 7 reported directly to the USCENTCOM. HQs at Baghdad.

(8) The 1st AD took control over the Baghdad area.
(9) The 82nd ABD took control over the West zone (Anbar province). HQs at Ramadi.
(10) The 4th ID took control over the North Central zone. HQs at Tikrit.
(11) The 101st ABD took control over the North zone. HQs at Mosul.
(12) The MND-SE, commanded by United Kingdom, was established on 12 Jul 2003. HQs at Basrah
(13) The MND-CS, commanded by Poland, was established on 3 Sep 2003. HQs at Hillah.

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