Leaders of Italy
(Italian Republic)
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Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website. Also visit a detailed page on Italian Governments since 1990 to know more about the ruling parties. The presidents of the regions are available at Rulers.

Current parties and movements: ApI: Alliance for Italy (2009) DCU: United Democratic Christians (2004) FI: Forza Italia (1994-2009 > PdL, relaunched 2013) FLI: Future and Freedom for Italy (2011) FV: Federation of the Greens (1990) IDV: Italy of Values (1998) LAL: Lombard Alliance League (2001) LD: Liberal Democrats (2007) LN: Lega Nord (1991) M5S: Five Star Movement (2009) NCD: New Centre-Right (2013) PD: Democratic Party (2007) PDCI: Party of the Italian Communists (1998) PpI: Populars for Italy (2014) PRC: Communist Refoundation Party (1991) PRI: Italian Republican Party (1895) PSI: (new) Italian Socialist Party (2007) PSDI: (new) Italian Democratic Socialist Party (2004) RI: Italian Radicals (2001) SC: Civic Election (2013) SEL: Left Ecology Freedom (2010) SVP: South Tyrolean People's Party (1945) UDC: Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (2002)

Late parties and coalitions: ALD: Autonomy Liberty Democracy (alliance active in Aosta Valley, 2006-2010 > ALPE) AN: National Alliance (1994-2009 > PdL) AR: Reformist Alliance (2007 > PD) CCD: Christian Democratic Center (1994-2002 > UDC) CDA: Christian Democracy for the Autonomies (2005-2009 > PdL) CDU: United Christian Democrats (1995-2002 > UDC) DC: Christian Democracy (1944-1994 > PPI, CCD, CDU) DL-La Margherita: Democracy is Freedom-Daisy (2002-2007 > PD) DS: Party of the European Socialism-Democrats of the Left (1998-2007 > PD) I Democratici/Asinello: The Democrats/Donkey (1999-2002 > DL-La Margherita) Italia di Mezzo: Middle-of-the-Road Italy (2006-2007 > PD) L'Ulivo: Olive Tree Federation (comprising DS, DL-La Margherita and MRE, 2005-2007 > PD) L'Unione: The Union (2005-2008, coalition comprising PD, PRC, SDI, FV, PDCI, UDEUR, IDV, RI, PSDI, SD, LD, LAL, SVP, DCU, ALD) MRE: European Republican Movement (2001-2011 > PRI) MSI: Italian Social Movement (1946-1994 > AN) PA: Action Party (1942-1947) PCI: Italian Communist Party (1921-1994 > PDS, PRC) PdL: The People of Freedom (2009-2013 > FI, NCD) PDL: Labour Democratic Party (1943-1948 > PSDI) PDM: Southern Democratic Party (2006-2007 > PD) PDS: Democratic Party of the Left (1994-1998 > DS) PLI: Italian Liberal Party (1922-1994) PPI: Italian People's Party (1994-2002 > DL-La Margherita) Progetto Sardegna: Sardinia Project (2003-2007 > PD) PSDI: (old) Italian Democratic Socialist Party (1952-1998 > SDI) PSI: (old) Italian Socialist Party (1892-1994 > SI) RD: Democratic Republicans (2004-2007 > PD) RI: Italian Renewal (1996-2002 > DL-La Margherita) RNP: Rose in the Fist (2005-2007, federation comprising SDI and RI > (new) PSI) SDI: Italian Democratic Socialists (1998-2007 > (new) PSI) SD: Democratic Left. For European Socialism (2007-2010) SI: Italian Socialists (1994-1998 > SDI) UDEUR: Union of Democrats for Europe-Populars for the South (1999-2013 > FI) UDR: Democratic Union of the Republic (1998-1999 > UDEUR)


Heads of State
Kings
Vittorio Emanuele III       29 Jul 1900 -  9 May 1946 (+1947) 
Umberto II                   9 May 1946 - 18 Jun 1946 (+1983) 

Provisional Head of State  
Alcide De Gasperi           18 Jun 1946 -  1 Jul 1946 (+1954) DC (acting)

Presidents of the Republic
Enrico De Nicola             1 Jul 1946 - 12 May 1948 (+1959) PLI (1)
Luigi Einaudi               12 May 1948 - 11 May 1955 (+1961) PLI
Giovanni Gronchi            11 May 1955 - 11 May 1962 (+1978) DC
Antonio Segni               11 May 1962 -  6 Dec 1964 (+1972) DC
Cesare Merzagora             6 Dec 1964 - 29 Dec 1964 (+1991) DC (acting)
Giuseppe Saragat            29 Dec 1964 - 29 Dec 1971 (+1988) PSDI
Giovanni Leone              29 Dec 1971 - 15 Jun 1978 (+2001) DC
Amintore Fanfani            15 Jun 1978 -  9 Jul 1978 (+1999) DC (acting)
Alessandro (Sandro) Pertini  9 Jul 1978 - 29 Jun 1985 (+1990) PSI
Francesco Maurizio Cossiga  29 Jun 1985 - 28 Apr 1992 (+2010) DC
Giovanni Spadolini          28 Apr 1992 - 28 May 1992 (+1994) PRI (acting)
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro        28 Apr 1992 - 15 May 1999 (+2012) DC, n/p
Nicola Mancino              15 May 1999 - 18 May 1999         PPI (acting)
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi        18 May 1999 - 15 May 2006 (+2016) n/p 
Giorgio Napolitano          15 May 2006 - 14 Jan 2015         DS, n/p   
Pietro Grasso               14 Jan 2015 -  3 Feb 2015         PD (acting)   
Sergio Mattarella            3 Feb 2015 -                     n/p

(1) Provisional head of State to 1 Jan 1948.

Presidents of the Council of Ministers
Ivanoe Bonomi                9 Jun 1944 - 25 Jun 1945 (+1951) n/p 
Ferruccio Parri             25 Jun 1945 - 10 Dec 1945 (+1981) PA
Alcide De Gasperi           10 Dec 1945 - 15 Aug 1953 (+1954) DC
Giuseppe Pella              15 Aug 1953 - 18 Jan 1954 (+1981) DC
Amintore Fanfani            18 Jan 1954 -  9 Feb 1954 (+1999) DC
Mario Scelba                 9 Feb 1954 -  6 Jul 1955 (+1991) DC
Antonio Segni                6 Jul 1955 - 19 May 1957 (+1972) DC
Adone Zoli                  19 May 1957 -  2 Jul 1958 (+1960) DC
Amintore Fanfani             2 Jul 1958 - 15 Feb 1959 (+1999) DC
Antonio Segni               15 Feb 1959 - 25 Mar 1960 (+1972) DC
Fernando Tambroni           25 Mar 1960 - 26 Jul 1960 (+1963) DC
Amintore Fanfani            26 Jul 1960 - 21 Jun 1963 (+1999) DC
Giovanni Leone              21 Jun 1963 -  5 Dec 1963 (+2001) DC
Aldo Moro                    5 Dec 1963 - 25 Jun 1968 (+1978) DC
Giovanni Leone              25 Jun 1968 - 13 Dec 1968 (+2001) DC
Mariano Rumor               13 Dec 1968 -  7 Aug 1970 (+1990) DC
Emilio Colombo               7 Aug 1970 - 18 Feb 1972 (+2013) DC
Giulio Andreotti            18 Feb 1972 -  4 Jul 1973 (+2013) DC
Mariano Rumor                4 Jul 1973 -  2 Nov 1974 (+1990) DC
Aldo Moro                    2 Nov 1974 - 29 Jul 1976 (+1978) DC
Giulio Andreotti            29 Jul 1976 -  5 Aug 1979 (+2013) DC
Francesco Cossiga            5 Aug 1979 - 18 Oct 1980 (+2010) DC
Arnaldo Forlani             18 Oct 1980 - 28 Jun 1981         DC
Giovanni Spadolini          28 Jun 1981 - 30 Nov 1982 (+1994) PRI
Amintore Fanfani            30 Nov 1982 -  4 Aug 1983 (+1999) DC
Benedettino (Bettino) Craxi  4 Aug 1983 - 18 Apr 1987 (+2000) PSI
Amintore Fanfani            18 Apr 1987 - 29 Jul 1987 (+1999) DC
Giovanni Giuseppe Goria     29 Jul 1987 - 13 Apr 1988 (+1994) DC
Ciriaco De Mita             13 Apr 1988 - 23 Jul 1989         DC
Giulio Andreotti            23 Jul 1989 - 28 Jun 1992 (+2013) DC
Giuliano Amato              28 Jun 1992 - 29 Apr 1993         PSI
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi        29 Apr 1993 - 11 May 1994 (+2016) n/p
Silvio Berlusconi           11 May 1994 - 17 Jan 1995         FI
Lamberto Dini               17 Jan 1995 - 18 May 1996         n/p, RI
Romano Prodi                18 May 1996 - 21 Oct 1998         n/p (2)
Massimo D'Alema             21 Oct 1998 - 26 Apr 2000         DS
Giuliano Amato              26 Apr 2000 - 11 Jun 2001         n/p
Silvio Berlusconi           11 Jun 2001 - 17 May 2006         FI
Romano Prodi                17 May 2006 -  8 May 2008         L'Ulivo/L'Unione, PD/L'Unione
Silvio Berlusconi            8 May 2008 - 16 Nov 2011         FI, PdL
Mario Monti                 16 Nov 2011 - 28 Apr 2013         n/p, SC
Enrico Letta                28 Apr 2013 - 22 Feb 2014         PD
Matteo Renzi                22 Feb 2014 - 12 Dec 2016         PD
Paolo Gentiloni             12 Dec 2016 -                     PD

(2) Non-party prime minister, but supported by the election list Forum Romano Prodi and also head of the multi-party Olivo Tree coalition.
Vicepresidents of the Council of Ministers
Giulio Rodinň      +                  (+1950) DC 
 Palmiro Togliatti          1944-1945 (+1964) PCI  
Manlio Brosio      +                  (+1980) PLI
 Pietro Sandro Nenni        1945      (+1980) PSI
Pietro Sandro Nenni         1945-1946 (+1980) PSI
Randolfo Pacciardi +                  (+1991) PRI
 Giuseppe Saragat  +                  (+1988) PSDI 
 Luigi Einaudi              1947-1948 (+1961) PLI  
Attilio Piccioni   +                  (+1976) DC   
 Giovanni Porzio   +                  (+1962) PLI
 Giuseppe Saragat           1948-1950 (+1988) PSDI (3)
Attilio Piccioni            1951-1953 (+1976) DC
Giuseppe Saragat            1954-1957 (+1988) PSDI
Giuseppe Pella              1957-1958 (+1981) DC
Antonio Segni               1958-1959 (+1972) DC
Attilio Piccioni            1960-1963 (+1976) DC
Petro Sandro Nenni          1963-1968 (+1980) PSI
Francesco De Martino        1968-1969 (+2002) PSI
Emilio Paolo Taviani        1969-1970 (+2001) DC
Francesco De Martino        1970-1972 (+2002) PSI
Mario Tanassi               1972-1973 (+2007) PSDI
Ugo La Malfa                1974-1976 (+1979) PRI
Ugo La Malfa                1979      (+1979) PRI
Bruno Visentini             1979      (+1995) PRI
Arnaldo Forlani             1983-1987         DC
Gianni De Michelis          1988-1989         PSI
Claudio Martelli            1989-1992         PSI
Giuseppe Tatarella +                  (+1999) AN
 Roberto Maroni             1994-1995         LN
Walter Veltroni             1996-1998         PDS, DS
Sergio Mattarella           1998-1999         PPI
Gianfranco Fini             2001-2006         AN
Marco Follini               2004-2005         UDC 
Giulio Tremonti             2005-2006         FI
Massimo D'Alema             2006-2008         DS/L'Ulivo/L'Unione
Francesco Rutelli           2006-2008         Margherita/L'Ulivo/L'Unione, PD/L'Unione
Angelino Alfano             2013-2014         PdL, NCD

(3) Saragat only up to 1949.
Ministers of Foreign Affairs
Ivanoe Bonomi               1944      (+1951) n/p  
Alcide De Gasperi           1944-1946 (+1954) DC
Pietro Sandro Nenni   	    1946-1947 (+1980) PSI
Carlo Sforza          	    1947-1951 (+1952) n/p  
Alcide De Gasperi           1951-1953 (+1954) DC
Giuseppe Pella              1953-1954 (+1981) DC
Attilio Piccioni            1954      (+1976) DC
Gaetano Martino             1954-1957 (+1967) PLI
Giuseppe Pella              1957-1958 (+1981) DC
Amintore Fanfani            1958-1959 (+1999) DC
Giuseppe Pella              1959-1960 (+1981) DC
Antonio Segni               1960-1962 (+1972) DC
Amintore Fanfani            1962      (+1999) DC (interim)
Attilio Piccioni            1962-1963 (+1976) DC
Giuseppe Saragat            1963-1964 (+1988) PSDI
Aldo Moro                   1964-1965 (+1978) DC (interim)
Amintore Fanfani            1965      (+1999) DC
Aldo Moro                   1965-1966 (+1978) DC (interim)   
Amintore Fanfani            1966-1968 (+1999) DC
Aldo Moro                   1968      (+1978) DC
Giuseppe Medici             1968      (+2000) DC
Pietro Sandro Nenni         1968-1969 (+1980) PSI
Aldo Moro                   1969-1972 (+1978) DC
Giuseppe Medici             1972-1973 (+2000) DC
Aldo Moro                   1973-1974 (+1978) DC
Mariano Rumor               1974-1976 (+1990) DC
Arnaldo Forlani             1976-1979         DC
Franco Maria Malfatti       1979-1980 (+1991) DC
Attilio Ruffini             1980      (+2011) DC
Emilio Colombo              1980-1983 (+2013) DC
Giulio Andreotti            1983-1989 (+2013) DC
Gianni De Michelis          1989-1992         PSI
Vincenzo Scotti             1992              DC
Giuliano Amato              1992              PSI (interim) 
Emilio Colombo              1992-1993 (+2013) DC
Beniamino Andreatta         1993-1994 (+2007) DC
Leopoldo Elia               1994      (+2008) PPI
Antonio Martino             1994-1995         FI
Susanna Agnelli             1995-1996 (+2009) n/p  
Lamberto Dini               1996-2001         RI
Renato Ruggiero             2001-2002 (+2013) n/p  
Silvio Berlusconi           2002              FI
Franco Frattini             2002-2004         FI
Gianfranco Fini             2004-2006         AN
Massimo D'Alema             2006-2008         DS/L'Ulivo/L'Unione, PD/L'Unione
Franco Frattini             2008-2011         FI, PdL
Giulio Terzi di Sant'Agata  2011-2013         n/p
Mario Monti                 2013              SC (interim)
Emma Bonino                 2013-2014         RI
Federica Mogherini          2014              PD
Paolo Gentiloni             2014-2016         PD
Angelino Alfano             2016-             NCD

Ministers of Defence (4)
Alessandro Casati           1944-1945 (+1955) PLI  
Stefano Jacini              1945-1946 (+1952) DC
Manlio Brosio               1946      (+1980) PLI
Cipriano Facchinetti        1946-1947 (+1952) PRI
Luigi Gasparotto            1947      (+1954) PA
Mario Cingolani             1947      (+1970) DC
Cipriano Facchinetti        1947-1948 (+1952) PRI
Randolfo Pacciardi          1948-1953 (+1991) PRI
Giuseppe Codacci Pisanelli  1953      (+1988) DC
Emilio Paolo Taviani        1953-1958 (+2001) DC
Antonio Segni               1958-1959 (+1972) DC
Giulio Andreotti            1959-1966 (+2013) DC
Roberto Tremelloni          1966-1968 (+1987) PSDI
Luigi Gui                   1968-1970 (+2010) DC
Mario Tanassi               1970-1972 (+2007) SDI
Franco Restivo              1972      (+1976) DC 
Mario Tanassi               1972-1974 (+2007) PSDI
Giulio Andreotti            1974      (+2013) DC
Arnaldo Forlani             1974-1976         DC
Vito Lattanzio              1976-1977 (+2010) DC
Attilio Ruffini             1977-1980 (+2011) DC
Adolfo Sarti                1980      (+1992) DC
Lelio Lagorio               1980-1983 (+2017) PSI
Giovanni Spadolini          1983-1987 (+1994) PRI
Remo Gaspari                1987      (+2011) DC
Valerio Zanone              1987-1989 (+2016) PLI
Fermo Mino Martinazzoli     1989-1990 (+2011) DC
Virginio Rognoni            1990-1992         DC
Salvo Andň                  1992-1993         PSI
Fabio Fabbri                1993-1994         PSI
Cesare Previti              1994-1995         FI
Domenico Corcione           1995-1996         n/p  
Beniamino Andreatta         1996-1998 (+2007) PPI
Carlo Luigi Scognamiglio    1998-1999         UDR
Sergio Mattarella           1999-2001         PPI
Antonio Martino             2001-2006         FI
Arturo Parisi               2006-2008         Margherita/L'Ulivo/L'Unione, PD/L'Unione
Ignazio La Russa            2008-2011         AN, PdL
Giampaolo Di Paola          2011-2013         n/p (military)
Mario Mauro                 2013-2014         SC, PpI
Roberta Pinotti             2014-             PD

(4) To 1947 separated ministries for the Army (War), the Navy and the Air Forces. To then the holder is the minister of War.
Ministers of the Interior
Ivanoe Bonomi               1944-1945 (+1951) n/p 
Ferruccio Parri             1945      (+1981) PA
Giuseppe Romita             1945-1946 (+1958) PSI
Alcide De Gasperi           1946-1947 (+1954) DC
Mario Scelba                1947-1953 (+1991) DC
Amintore Fanfani            1953-1954 (+1999) DC
Giulio Andreotti            1954-1955 (+2013) DC 
Fernando Tambroni           1955-1959 (+1963) DC
Antonio Segni               1959-1960 (+1972) DC       
Giuseppe Spataro            1960      (+1979) DC
Mario Scelba                1960-1962 (+1991) DC
Emilio Paolo Taviani        1962-1963 (+2001) DC
Mariano Rumor               1963      (+1990) DC
Emilio Paolo Taviani        1963-1968 (+2001) DC
Franco Restivo              1968-1972 (+1976) DC
Mariano Rumor               1972-1973 (+1990) DC
Emilio Paolo Taviani        1973-1974 (+2001) DC
Luigi Gui                   1974-1976 (+2010) DC
Aldo Moro                   1976      (+1978) DC
Francesco Cossiga           1976-1978 (+2010) DC
Giulio Andreotti            1978-1979 (+2013) DC 
Virginio Rognoni            1979-1983         DC
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro        1983-1987 (+2012) DC
Amintore Fanfani            1987-1988 (+1999) DC
Antonio Gava                1988-1990 (+2008) DC
Vincenzo Scotti             1990-1992         DC
Nicola Mancino              1992-1994         DC
Roberto Maroni              1994-1995         LN
Antonio Brancaccio          1995      (+1995) n/p
Giovanni Rinaldo Coronas    1995-1996 (+2008) n/p
Giorgio Napolitano          1996-1998         PDS
Rosa Russo Iervolino        1998-1999         PPI
Enzo Bianco                 1999-2001         D
Claudio Scajola             2001-2002         FI
Giuseppe Pisanu             2002-2006         FI
Giuliano Amato              2006-2008         L'Ulivo/L'Unione, L'Unione
Roberto Maroni              2008-2011         LN
Anna Maria Cancellieri      2011-2013         n/p
Angelino Alfano             2013-2016         PdL, NCD
Marco Minniti               2016-             PD

Ministers of the Treasury
Marcello Soleri             1944-1945 (+1945)
Federico Pietro Ricci       1945      (+1963)
Epicarmo Corbino            1945-1946 (+1984) PLI	
Giovanni Battista Bertone   1946-1947 (+1969) DC
Piero Campilli              1947      (+1974) DC
Luigi Einaudi               1947      (+1961) PLI
Gustavo Del Vecchio         1947-1948 (+1972) n/p
Giuseppe Pella              1948-1951 (+1981) DC
Ezio Vanoni                 1951-1952 (+1956) DC (interim) 
Giuseppe Pella              1952-1953 (+1981) DC (interim)
Silvio Gava                 1953-1956 (+1999) DC
Ezio Vanoni                 1956      (+1956) DC (interim)
Giuseppe Medici             1956-1958 (+2000) DC
Giulio Andreotti            1958-1959 (+2013) DC
Fernando Tambroni           1959-1960 (+1963) DC (interim)
Emilio Paolo Taviani        1960-1962 (+2001) DC
Roberto Tremelloni          1962-1963 (+1987) PSDI
Emilio Colombo              1963-1970 (+2013) DC
Mario Ferrari Aggradi       1970-1972 (+1997) DC
Emilio Colombo              1972      (+2013) DC
Giovanni Francesco Malagodi 1972-1973 (+1991) PLI
Ugo La Malfa                1973-1974 (+1979) PRI
Emilio Colombo              1974-1976 (+2013) DC     
Gaetano Stammati            1976-1978 (+2002) DC
Filippo Maria Pandolfi      1978-1980         DC
Beniamino Andreatta         1980-1982 (+2007) DC
Giovanni Giuseppe Goria     1982-1987 (+1994) DC   
Giuliano Amato              1987-1989         PSI
Guido Carli                 1989-1992 (+1993) n/p
Piero Barucci               1992-1994         n/p
Lamberto Dini               1994-1996         n/p   
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi        1996-1999 (+2016) n/p  
Giuliano Amato              1999-2000         n/p  
Vincenzo Visco              2000-2001         DS

Ministers of Finance
Antonio Pesenti             1944-1945 (+1973) PCI          
Mauro Scoccimarro           1945-1947 (+1972) PCI
Piero Campilli              1947      (+1974) DC
Luigi Einaudi               1947      (+1961) PLI 
Giuseppe Pella              1947-1948 (+1981) DC
Ezio Vanoni                 1948-1954 (+1956) DC
Adone Zoli                  1954      (+1960) DC
Roberto Tremelloni          1954-1955 (+1987) PSDI
Giulio Andreotti            1955-1958 (+2013) DC
Luigi Preti                 1958-1959 (+2009) PSDI
Emilio Paolo Taviani        1959-1960 (+2001) DC
Giuseppe Trabucchi          1960-1963 (+1975) DC
Mario Martinelli            1963      (+2001) DC  
Roberto Tremelloni          1963-1966 (+1987) PSDI
Luigi Preti                 1966-1968 (+2009) PSDI
Mario Ferrari Aggradi       1968      (+1997) DC
Oronzo Reale                1968-1969 (+1988) PRI
Giacinto Bosco              1969-1970 (+1997) DC
Luigi Preti                 1970-1972 (+2009) PSDI
Giuseppe Pella              1972      (+1981) DC
Athos Valsecchi             1972-1973 (+1985) DC
Emilio Colombo              1973-1974 (+2013) DC 
Mario Tanassi               1974      (+2007) PSDI
Bruno Visentini             1974-1976 (+1995) PRI
Gaetano Stammati            1976      (+2002) DC
Filippo Maria Pandolfi      1976-1978         DC
Franco Maria Malfatti       1978-1979 (+1991) DC
Franco Reviglio             1979-1981         PSI
Salvatore Rino Formica      1981-1982         PSI
Francesco Forte             1982-1983         PSI
Bruno Visentini             1983-1987 (+1995) PRI
Giuseppe Guarino            1987              DC
Antonio Gava                1987-1988 (+2008) DC
Emilio Colombo              1988-1989 (+2013) DC
Salvatore Rino Formica      1989-1992         PSI 
Giovanni Giuseppe Goria     1992-1993 (+1994) DC  
Franco Reviglio             1993              PSI
Vincenzo Visco              1993              PDS
Franco Gallo                1993-1994         n/p
Giulio Tremonti             1994-1995         n/p   
Augusto Fantozzi            1995-1996         n/p  
Vincenzo Visco              1996-2000         PDS
Ottaviano del Turco         2000-2001         SDI

Economy and Finance
Giulio Tremonti             2001-2004         FI
Silvio Berlusconi           2004              FI
Domenico Siniscalco         2004-2005         n/p
Giulio Tremonti             2005-2006         FI
Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa      2006-2008 (+2010) L'Ulivo/L'Unione, L'Unione
Giulio Tremonti             2008-2011         FI, PdL
Mario Monti                 2011-2012         n/p
Vittorio Grilli             2012-2013         n/p
Fabrizio Saccomanni         2013-2014         n/p
Pier Carlo Padoan           2014-             n/p

Presidents of the Chamber of Deputies
Giovanni Gronchi            1948-1955 (+1978) DC
Giovanni Leone              1955-1963 (+2001) DC
Brunetto Bucciarelli Ducci  1963-1968 (+1994) DC 
Alessandro (Sandro) Pertini 1968-1976 (+1990) PSI
Pietro Ingrao               1976-1979 (+2015) PCI
Leonilde (Nilde) Iotti      1979-1992 (+1999) PCI
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro        1992      (+2012) DC
Giorgio Napolitano          1992-1994         PCI 
Irene Pivetti               1994-1996         LN
Luciano Violante            1996-2001         PDS/DS 
Pier Ferdinando Casini      2001-2006         CCD
Fausto Bertinotti           2006-2008         PRC/L'Unione    
Gianfranco Fini             2008-2013         AN, PdL, FLI
Laura Boldrini              2013-             SEL

Presidents of the Senate
Ivanoe Bonomi               1948-1951 (+1951) n/p 
Enrico De Nicola            1951-1952 (+1959) PLI
Giuseppe Paratore           1952-1953 (+1967) PLI
Luigi Gasparotto            1953      (+1954) n/p 
Bartolomeo Meuccio Ruini    1953      (+1970) PRI
Cesare Merzagora            1953-1967 (+1991) DC
Ennio Zelioli Lanzini       1967-1968 (+1976) DC
Amintore Fanfani            1968-1973 (+1999) DC
Giovanni Spagnolli          1973-1976 (+1984) DC
Amintore Fanfani            1976-1982 (+1999) DC
Tommaso Morlino             1982-1983 (+1983) DC
Vittorino Colombo           1983      (+1983) DC 
Francesco Cossiga           1983-1985 (+2010) DC
Amintore Fanfani            1985-1987 (+1999) DC
Giovanni Francesco Malagodi 1987      (+1991) PLI
Giovanni Spadolini          1987-1994 (+1994) PRI
Carlo Luigi Scognamiglio    1994-1996         FI
Nicola Mancino              1996-2001         PPI
Marcello Pera               2001-2006         FI
Franco Marini               2006-2008         Margherita/L'Ulivo/L'Unione, PD/L'Unione
Renato Maria Schifani       2008-2013         FI, PdL
Pietro Grasso               2013-             PD

President of FI
Silvio Berlusconi           1994-2009   
Silvio Berlusconi           2013-

FI was founded on 18 Jan 1994. On 27 Mar 2009, with the founding of PdL, the party ceased to exist. On 16 Nov 2013 Silvio Berlusconi declared FI relaunched and the PdL dissolved.
Leaders of PdL (2009-2013)
President
Silvio Berlusconi           2007-2013

General Secretary
Angelino Alfano             2011-2013

PdL was launched by Silvio Berlusconi on 18 Nov 2007 as the would-be merger of FI, AN, CDA and other minor center-right parties. It run as a joint list in the 2008 general elections. Its founding congress took place on 27-29 Mar 2009. On 30 Jul 2010 Gianfranco Fini led a split that became the FLI party on 13 Feb 2011. On 16 Nov 2013 Berlusconi declared the PdL dissolved and announced Forza Italia's revival. On the eve, Angelino Alfano broke away to launch his New Centre-Right (NCD) party.
Leaders of L'Ulivo and PD
President of L'Ulivo
Romano Prodi                2005-2007  

National Secretaries of PD
Walter Veltroni             2007-2009
Dario Franceschini          2009
Pier Luigi Bersani          2009-2013
Guglielmo Epifani           2013
Matteo Renzi                2013-2017
Matteo Orfini               2017      (acting)
Matteo Renzi                2017-

Presidents of tne National Assembly of PD
Romano Prodi                2007-2008
Anna Finocchiaro            2008-2008 (acting)
Rosy Bindi                  2009-2013
Marina Sereni + 
Ivan Scalfarotto            2013      (acting)
Gianni Cuperlo              2013-2014
Matteo Orfini               2014-

The Olivo Tree Federation (a.k.a. All United under the Olivo Tree), was formally constitued on 26 Feb 2005 by DS, DL-La Margherita, SDI and MRE. SDI left out in 2005. The subsequent three-party federation was the core of the broader coalition L'Unione, launched on 10 Feb 2005. On 14 Oct 2007 DS and DL-La Margherita merged with other minor forces (Italia di Mezzo, Progetto Sardegna, AR, RD and PDM) to form a single party, the PD.


Leaders of UDC
President
Rocco Buttiglione           2002-2014
Gianpiero D'Alia            2014-

National secretaries
Marco Follini               2002-2005   
Lorenzo Cesa                2005-

Leaders in the Chamber of Deputies
Luca Volontč                2002-2008
Pier Ferdinando Casini      2008-2012
Gian Luca Galletti          2012-2013

UDC was born on 6 Dec 2002 as the merger of CCD, CDU and Sergio D'Antoni's electoral list European Democracy.


Leaders of FLI
President
Gianfranco Fini             2011-2013

Coordinator
Roberto Menia               2013-

FLI was established on 13 Feb 2011 by Gianfranco Fini following his departure from PdL on 30 Jul 2010. After appointing the party's leading officers, Fini suspended himself as president of the party as he was also President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies.


Chairman of NCD
Angelino Alfano             2013-

NCD was founded by splinters of Forza Italia on 15 Nov 2013.


Leaders of PRC
President
Armando Cossutta            1991-1998 (+2015)       

Secretaries
Sergio Gavarini             1991-1994
Fausto Bertinotti           1994-2006
Franco Giordano             2006-2008
Paolo Ferrero               2008-             

PRC was founded on 6 Feb 1991 as a movement by splinters of PCI, opposed to its transformation into PDS, and on 13 Dec 1991 became a party.


Leaders of PDCI
Presidents
Armando Cossutta            1998-2006 (+2015)
Antonino Cuffaro            2007-

National Secretaries
Armando Cossutta            1998-2000 (+2015)  
Oliviero Diliberto          2000-2013
Cesare Procaccini           2013-            

PDCI was founded on 11 Oct 1998 by splinters of PRC.


Leaders of Lega Nord
Federal Secretaries
Umberto Bossi               1991-2012
Roberto Maroni              2012-2013
Matteo Salvini              2013-            

Coordinators
Roberto Maroni + 
Roberto Calderoli +
Manuela Dal Lago            2012   

Federal President  
Umberto Bossi               2012-    

LN was founded on 8 Feb 1991.


Leader of the Five Star Movement (M5S)
Beppe Grillo                2009-

The MoVimento 5 Stelle (M5S) was launched on 4 oct 2009.


Leaders of Civic Choice (SC)
Presidents
Andrea Riccardi             2013
Mario Monti                 2013
Alberto Bombassei           2013-2014
Renato Balduzzi             2014

Secretaries
Stefania Giannini           2013-2014
Enrico Zanetti              2015-

The Scelta Civica, con Monti per Italia was launched on 4 Jan 2013 for the coming general elections to support the outgoing Prime Minister Mario Monti. It is part of the coalition With Monti for Italy, along with UDC and FLI parties.
Leaders of PRI
Secretaries
Randolfo Pacciardi          1945-1946 (+1991)
Giulio Andrea Belloni       1946-1947 (+1957)
Randolfo Pacciardi          1947      (+1991)
Giulio Andrea Belloni +               (+1957)
 Ugo La Malfa         +               (+1979)
 Oronzo Reale               1947-1948 (+1988)
Giulio Andrea Belloni +               (+1957)
 Giuseppe Chiostergi  +               (+1961)
 Amedeo Sommovigo           1948      (+1969)
Giovanni Pasqualini   +
 Franco Simoncini     +
 Amedeo Sommovigo           1948-1949 (+1969)
Oronzo Reale          +               (+1988)
 Franco Simoncini     +
 Amedeo Sommovigo           1949-1950 (+1969)
Oronzo Reale                1950-1963 (+1988)
Oddo Biasini          +               (+2009)
 Claudio Salmoni      + 
 Emanuele Terrana           1964-1965 (+1979)
Ugo La Malfa                1965-1975 (+1979)
Oddo Biasini                1975-1979 (+2009)
Giovanni Spadolini          1979-1987 (+1994)
Giorgio La Malfa            1987-2001
Francesco Nucara            2001-2013

President
Francesco Nucara            2013-

The PRI was founded on 21 Apr 1895.


Secretaries of PSDI
Giuseppe Saragat            1947-1948 (+1988)
Alberto Simonini            1948-1949 (+1960)
Ugo Guido Mondolfo          1949      (+1957)
Ludovico D'Aragona          1949      (+1961)
Giuseppe Saragat            1949-1952 (+1988)
Ezio Vigorelli              1952      (+1964)
Giuseppe Romita             1952      (+1958)
Giuseppe Saragat            1952-1954 (+1988)
Gianmatteo Matteotti        1954-1957 (+2000)
Giuseppe Saragat            1957-1964 (+1988)
Mario Tanassi               1964-1966 (+2007)
  --- unified with PSI ---  1966-1969
Mauro Ferri                 1969-1972 (+2015)
Mario Tanassi               1972      (+2007)
Flavio Orlandi              1972-1975 (+2009)
Mario Tanassi               1975-1976 (+2007)
Giuseppe Saragat            1976      (+1988)
Pier Luigi Romita           1976-1978 (+2003)
Pietro Longo                1978-1985
Franco Nicolazzi            1985-1988 (+2015)
Antonio Cariglia            1988-1992 (+2010)
Carlo Vizzini               1992-1993
Enzo Ferri                  1993-1995
Gian Franco Schietroma      1995-1998
--- merged into SDI ---     1998-2004
Giorgio Carta               2004-2007
Mimmo Magistro              2007-2011
Renato d'Andria             2011-
The first PSDI was founded on 11 Jan 1947 as a split from the PSI and using the original name of Socialist Party of Italian Workers (PSLI). The PSLI changed its name to PSDI in 1952. From 1966 to 1969 the party was unified wih the PSI. On 8 Feb 1998 the party ceased to exist through the merger with the Socialist Party (PS) and the The Italian Socialists (SI) to create the SDI. In 2004 the party was re-established with the same name, Italian Democratic Socialist Party.
Leaders of IDV
President
Antonio Di Pietro           1998-2013

Secretary
Ignazio Messina             2013-

IDV was founded on 21 Mar 1998.
Leaders of UDR, UDEUR (1998-2013)
Secretary                
Mario Clemente Mastella     1998-2013             

Presidents
Francesco Cossiga +                    (+2010)        
 Rocco Buttligione          1998-1999         
Irene Pivetti               1999-2002                    
Ida Dentamaro               2002-2004
Mino Martinazzoli           2004-2005
Lorenzo Acquarone           2005-2006
Federica Rossi Gasparrini   2007-2008
Marilina Intrieri           2009-2010
Romano Caratelli            2010-2013
Giuseppe Calzone            2013             

The Democratic Union of the Republic (UDR) was first founded on 16 Feb 1998, officially on 10 Jun 1998. Following the departures of Cossiga and Buttiglione from UDR on 24 Feb 1999, Mastella reconstitued the party as Union of the Democratic European Reformers or Union of Democrats for Europe (UDEUR) on 23 May 1999. Then, the party was successively called People's Alliance-UDEUR (2003-2004), Populars-UDEUR (2004-2010) and UDEUR-Populars for the South (since 25 jun 2010). The party was merged into Forza Italia on 19 Nov 2003.
Leaders of the new PSI
National Secretaries
Enrico Boselli              2007-2008
Riccardo Nencini            2008-

National president
Pia Locatelli               2008-2010

The new PSI was founded on 5 Oct 2007 by the merger of six minor social-democratic parties and associations coming from the tradition of the late PSI, disbanded in 1994: the Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI, Enrico Boselli), Democracy and Socialism (DS, Gavino Angius and Valdo Spini), The Italian Socialists (SI, Bobo Craxi), Nuovo PSI (faction led by Gianni De Michelis and Mauro Del Bue), Rose in the Fist (RNP, Lanfranco Turci) and Socialism is Freedom (SL, Rino Formica). Until 7 Oct 2009, the party was known simply as Socialist Party (PS).


President of ApI
Francesco Rutelli           2009-

ApI was founded on 11 Nov 2009 by splinters of PD, IDV, the new PSI and Trentino's Civica Margherita.


Leaders of DC (1944-1994)
Secretaries
Alcide De Gasperi           1944-1946 (+1954) 
Attilio Piccioni            1946-1949 (+1976) 
Giuseppe Cappi              1949      (+1963)
Emilio Paolo Taviani        1949-1950 (+2001) 
Guido Gonella               1950-1953 (+1982)
Alcide De Gasperi           1953-1954 (+1954) 
Amintore Fanfani            1954-1959 (+1999) 
Aldo Moro                   1959-1964 (+1978)
Mariano Rumor               1964-1969 (+1990) 
Flaminio Piccoli            1969      (+2000) 
Arnaldo Forlani             1969-1973         
Amintore Fanfani            1973-1975 (+1999) 
Benigno Zaccagnini          1975-1980 (+1989) 
Flaminio Piccoli            1980-1982 (+2000) 
Ciriaco De Mita             1982-1989         
Arnaldo Forlani             1989-1992        
Fermo Mino Martinazzoli     1992-1994 (+2011)  

Presidents of the National Council 
Alcide De Gasperi           1946-1954 (+1954)   
Adone Zoli                  1954-1960 (+1960)
Attilio Piccioni            1960-1966 (+1976) 
Mario Scelba                1966-1969 (+1991)
Benigno Zaccagnini          1969-1975 (+1989) 
Aldo Moro                   1975-1978 (+1978)  
Flaminio Piccoli            1978-1980 (+2000) 
Arnaldo Forlani             1980-1989
Ciriaco De Mita             1989-1992
Rosa Russo Iervolino        1992-1994

The DC was founded on 15 Dec 1942 and ceased to exist on 18 Jan 1994.


Leaders of PCI, PDS, DS (1921-2007)
General Secretaries of PCI
Palmiro Togliatti           1927-1964 (+1964) 
Luigi Longo                 1964-1972 (+1980) 
Enrico Berlinguer           1972-1984 (+1984)     
Alessandro Natta            1984-1988 (+2001) 
Achille Occhetto            1988-1991         

National Secretaries of PDS and DS
Achille Occhetto            1991-1994         
Massimo D'Alema             1994-1998     
Walter Veltroni             1998-2001         
Piero Fassino               2001-2007    

President of DS
Massimo D'Alema             1998-2007       

The late PCI was founded in 1921 by splinters of the PSI. It became the PDS in its XX Congress, from 31 Jan to 4 Feb 1991. On 14 Feb 1998 the PDS was renamed to Democrats of the Left (DS) and became a party with a federal structure. Three small groups merged into it: the United Communists (CU, splinters of PRC), the Labour Federation (FL, formed by former PSI members; leader, Valdo Spini) and the Social Christians (CS, formed by former DC members; leader, Ermanno Gorrieri). In the III Congress of DS, from 3 to 5 Feb 2005, the party adopted the additional name of Party of the European Socialism. On 14 Oct 2007 the DS merged with DL-La Margherita and other minor parties to form the PD, ceasing to exist.


General Secretaries of PSI (1892-1994)
Pietro Sandro Nenni         1931-1945 (+1980) 
Alessandro (Sandro) Pertini 1945-1946 (+1990)
Ivan Matteo Lombardo        1946-1947 (+1980)
Lelio Basso                 1947-1948 (+1978)
Alberto Jacometti           1948-1949 (+1985)
Pietro Sandro Nenni         1949-1963 (+1980) 
Francesco De Martino        1963-1966 (+2002) 
Francesco De Martino +                (+2002)
 Mario Tanassi              1966-1968 (+2007)
Mauro Ferri                 1968-1969
Francesco De Martino        1969-1970 (+2002) 
Giacomo Mancini             1970-1972 (+2002)
Francesco De Martino        1972-1976 (+2002) 
Benedettino (Bettino) Craxi 1976-1993 (+2000) 
Giorgio Benvenuto           1993              
Ottaviano Del Turco         1993-1994         

The late PSI was founded on 14 Aug 1892. The party approved its dissolution in its 47th Congress, on 12 Nov 1994. Following that development, a group of former PSI members (notably, Enrico Boselli and Ottaviano Del Turco) organized the Italian Socialists (SI).


Leaders of MSI and AN (1946-2009)
General Secretaries of MSI and MSI-AN
Giacinto Trevisonno         1946      
Giorgio Almirante           1946-1950 (+1988) 
Augusto de Marsanich        1950-1954 (+1973)
Arturo Michelini            1954-1969 (+1969)
Giorgio Almirante           1969-1987 (+1988) 
Gianfranco Fini             1987-1990         
Giuseppe (Pino) Rauti       1990-1991 (+2012)       
Gianfranco Fini             1991-1995         

President of AN
Gianfranco Fini             1995-2009             

The MSI was founded on 26 Dec 1946 and became a parliamentary caucus called MSI-AN on 29 Jan 1994. On 25 Jan 1995 it constitued itself as a party properly. Former MSI secretary Pino Rauti, claiming to be the legitimate heir of MSI, created the Social Movement-Three Color Flames party. AN was disbanded on 22 Mar 2009, prior to the founding congress of PdL.


General Secretaries of PLI (1922-1994)
Giovanni Cassandro          1946-1947 (+1989)
Roberto Lucifero            1947-1948 (+1993)
Bruno Villabruna            1948-1954 (+1971) (acting to 1949)
Alessandro Leone            1954              (acting)
Giovanni Malagodi           1954-1972 (+1991)
Agostino Bignardi           1972-1976 (+1993)
Valerio Zanone              1976-1985 (+2016)
Alfredo Biondi              1985-1986
Renato Altissimo            1986-1993 (+2015)
Raffaele Costa              1993-1994
The PLI was founded on 8 Oct 1992 and disbanded on 6 Feb 1994.
Secretaries of PPI (1994-2002)
Fermo Mino Martinazzoli     1994       (+2011)       
Rosa Russo Iervolino        1994               (interim) 
Rocco Buttiglione           1994-1995         
Gerardo Bianco              1995-1997         
Franco Marini               1997-1999         
Pier Luigi Castagnetti      1999-2002         

PPI was born founded on 18 Jan 1994 from the previous DC, which ceased to exist. Other parties emerged from the DC were CDU and CCD. In Mar 2002 PPI joined RI and I Democratici to form DL-La Margherita, ceasing to exist.


Secretaries of CCD (1994-2002)
Pier Ferdinando Casini      1994-2001         
Marco Follini               2001-2002

The CCD resulted from the disbanding of DC on 18 Jan 1994. On 6 Dec 2002 the party merged with the CDU and the movement European Democracy to form the UDC, ceasing to exist.


Leaders of CDU (1995-2002)
Presidents
Roberto Formigoni           1995-1998
Mario Tassone               1999-2002

Secretary
Rocco Buttiglione           1995-1998         
Rocco Buttiglione           1999-2002         

The CDU was founded on 23 Jul 1995 by members of the late DC that split from PPI. It did not exist between 18 Feb 1998 and 24 Feb 1999, during its integration in UDR. On 6 Dec 2002 it merged with the CCD and the movement European Democracy to form the UDC, ceasing to exist.


President of RI (1996-2002)
Lamberto Dini               1996-2002         

RI was founded on 26 Feb 1996 and ceased to exist in Mar 2002 through the merger with PPI and I Democratici, to form DL-La Margherita.


President of DL-La Margherita (2002-2007)
Francesco Rutelli           2002-2007             

The founding congress of DL-La Margherita was held on 22-24 Mar 2002, as the merger of PPI, RI and I Democratici. On 14 Oct 2007 the party merged with DS and other minor parties to form the PD, ceasing to exist.


National Secretary of SDI (1998-2008)
Enrico Boselli              1998-2007             

The SDI was founded on 8 Feb 1998 as the merger of the PSDI (led by Gianfranco Schietroma), the Socialist Party (PS, led by Ugo Intini) and The Italian Socialists (SI, led by Enrico Boselli and Ottaviano Del Turco). SDI was a original partner of the Olivo Tree Federation but it left in 2005 to form with the Italian Radicals the federation Rose in the Fist, a member of L'Unione coalition. On 5 Oct 2007 SDI was a constituting member of the new PSI.


Leaders of MRE (2001-2011)
President
Adriano Musi                2001-2011

Political Secretary
Luciana Sbarbati            2001-2011             

The MRE was launched on 6 Mar 2001 by splinters of the PRI. From 2005 to 2007 the party was a member of the Olive Tree Federation and then, to 2010, it was associated to the PD. On 27 Feb 2011 the MRE re-joined PRI, ceasing to exist.

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