Leaders of Portugal
(Portuguese Republic)
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Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website. Visit a detailed page on Portuguese Governments since 1990 to know more about the ruling parties.

Acronyms: BE: Left Bloc CDS: Social Democratic Center CDS-PP: Social Democratic Center-Popular Party (new name of the CDS since 1994) PCP: Portuguese Communist Party PS: Socialist Party PSD: Social Democratic Party UN: National Union n/p: non-party


Heads of State
Presidents of the Republic
António (Óscar de) Fragoso Carmona             9 Jul 1926 - 18 Apr 1951 (+1951) UN/military (*)
António de Oliveira Salazar                   18 Apr 1951 -  9 Aug 1951 (+1970) UN (acting) 
Francisco (Higino de) Craveiro Lopes           9 Aug 1951 -  9 Aug 1958 (+1964) UN/military
Américo (de Deus Rodrigues) Thomaz             9 Aug 1958 - 25 Apr 1974 (+1987) UN/military

National Salvation Junta (all military)
-Army Gen. António (Sebastião Ribeiro) de Spínola (chair)               (+1996)  
-Army Gen. Francisco da Costa Gomes                                     (+2001) 
-Navy Cap. José (Batista) Pinheiro de Azevedo                           (+1983) 
-Navy Cap. António (Alva) Rosa Coutinho                                 (+2010)       
-Army Brig. Jaime Silvério Marques                                      (+1986)  
-Air Col. Carlos Galvão de Melo                                         (+2008)                  
-Air Gen. (Manuel) Diogo Neto                 25 Apr 1974 - 15 May 1974 (+1995)           

Presidents of the Republic
António (Sebastião Ribeiro) de Spínola        15 May 1974 - 30 Sep 1974 (+1996) military
Francisco da Costa Gomes                      30 Sep 1974 - 14 Jul 1976 (+2001) military
(António dos Santos) Ramalho Eanes            14 Jul 1976 -  9 Mar 1986         military, n/p
Mário (Alberto Nobre Lopes) Soares             9 Mar 1986 -  9 Mar 1996 (+2017) PS 
Jorge (Fernando Branco de) Sampaio             9 Mar 1996 -  9 Mar 2006         PS
Aníbal (António) Cavaco Silva                  9 Mar 2006 -  9 Mar 2016         PSD, n/p
Marcelo (Nuno Duarte) Rebelo de Sousa          9 Mar 2016 -                     PSD

(*) General Carmona ruled as acting head of State from 9 Jul to 29 Nov 1926 and as interim President of the Republic from 29 Nov 1926 to 15 Apr 1928.


Prime Ministers
António de Oliveira Salazar                    5 Jul 1932 - 25 Sep 1968 (+1970) UN
Marcelo (das Neves Alves) Caetano             25 Sep 1968 - 25 Apr 1974 (+1980) UN
Adelino da Palma Carlos                       16 May 1974 - 18 Jul 1974 (+1992) n/p (provisional)
Vasco (dos Santos) Gonçalves                  18 Jul 1974 - 19 Sep 1975 (+2005) military (provisional)
José (Batista) Pinheiro de Azevedo            19 Sep 1975 - 23 Jul 1976 (+1983) military (provisional)
Mário (Alberto Nobre Lopes) Soares            23 Jul 1976 - 28 Aug 1978 (+2017) PS
Alfredo (Jorge) Nobre da Costa                28 Aug 1978 - 22 Nov 1978 (+1996) n/p
Carlos Alberto da Mota Pinto                  22 Nov 1978 -  1 Aug 1979 (+1985) n/p
Maria de Lourdes (Ruivo da Silva) Pintasilgo   1 Aug 1979 -  3 Jan 1980 (+2004) n/p (acting)  
Francisco (Manuel Lumbrales de) Sá Carneiro    3 Jan 1980 -  4 Dec 1980 (+1980) PSD
Diogo (Pinto de) Freitas do Amaral             4 Dec 1980 -  9 Jan 1981         CDS (acting) 
Francisco (José Pereira) Pinto Balsemão        9 Jan 1981 -  9 Jun 1983         PSD
Mário (Alberto Nobre Lopes) Soares             9 Jun 1983 -  6 Nov 1985 (+2017) PS 
Aníbal (António) Cavaco Silva                  6 Nov 1985 - 28 Oct 1995         PSD
António (Manuel de Oliveira) Guterres         28 Oct 1995 -  6 Apr 2002         PS
José Manuel Durão Barroso                      6 Apr 2002 - 17 Jul 2004         PSD
Pedro (Miguel de) Santana Lopes               17 Jul 2004 - 12 Mar 2005         PSD 
José Sócrates (Carvalho Pinto de Sousa)       12 Mar 2005 - 21 Jun 2011         PS 
Pedro (Manuel Mamede) Passos Coelho           21 Jun 2011 - 26 Nov 2015         PSD
António (Luís Santos da) Costa                26 Nov 2015 -                     PS

Deputy Prime Ministers
José Joaquim Teixeira Ribeiro                  8 Aug 1975 - 19 Sep 1975 (+1997) n/p
António (Carlos Magalhães) Arnão Metelo        8 Aug 1975 - 19 Sep 1975 (+2008) military
Manuel Jacinto Nunes                          22 Nov 1978 -  1 Aug 1979 (+2014) n/p
Diogo (Pinto de) Freitas do Amaral             3 Jan 1980 -  4 Dec 1980         CDS
Diogo (Pinto de) Freitas do Amaral             4 Sep 1981 -  9 Jun 1983         CDS
Carlos Alberto da Mota Pinto                   9 Jun 1983 - 15 Feb 1985 (+1985) PSD  
Rui (Manuel Parente Chancerelle de) Machete   15 Feb 1985 -  6 Nov 1985         PSD
Eurico (da Silva Teixeira) de Melo            17 Aug 1987 -  5 Jan 1990 (+2012) PSD
Paulo (de Sacadura Cabral) Portas              6 Jul 2013 - 26 Nov 2015         CDS-PP

Speakers of the Assembly
Constituent Assembly
Henrique (Teixeira de Queirós) de Barros      1975-1976 (+2000) PS

Assembly of the Republic
Vasco da Gama (Lopes) Fernandes               1976-1978 (+1991) PS
Teófilo Carvalho dos Santos                   1978-1980 (+1986) PS
Leonardo (Eugénio Ramos) Ribeiro de Almeida   1980      (+2006) PSD
Francisco (Manuel Lopes Vieira) Oliveira Dias 1981-1982         CDS
Leonardo (Eugénio Ramos) Ribeiro de Almeida   1982-1983 (+2006) PSD
Manuel (Alfredo) Tito de Morais               1983-1984 (+1999) PS 
Fernando (Monteiro do) Amaral                 1984-1987 (+1999) PSD
Vítor (Pereira) Crespo                        1987-1991 (+2014) PSD
António (Moreira) Barbosa de Melo             1991-1995 (+2016) PSD
António de Almeida Santos                     1995-2002 (+2016) PS
João (Bosco Soares) Mota Amaral               2002-2005         PSD
Jaime (José Matos da) Gama                    2005-2011         PS
Maria da Assunção (Andrade) Esteves           2011-2015         PSD
Eduardo (Luís Barreto) Ferro Rodrigues        2015-             PS

Ministers of Foreign Affairs
António de Oliveira Salazar                   1936-1947 (+1970) UN
José Caeiro da Mata                           1947-1950 (+1963) UN
Paulo Cunha                                   1950-1958 (+1986) UN
Marcelo (Gonçalves Nunes Duarte) Mathias      1958-1961 (+1999) n/p
Alberto (Marciano Gorjão) Franco Nogueira     1961-1969 (+1993) UN
Marcelo (das Neves Alves) Caetano             1969-1970 (+1980) UN 
Rui (Manuel de Medeiros d'Espiney) Patrício   1970-1974         UN
Mário (Alberto Nobre Lopes) Soares            1974-1975 (+2017) PS 
Ernesto (Augusto de) Melo Antunes             1975      (+1999) military
Mário (João Oliveira) Ruivo                   1975              PS
Ernesto (Augusto de) Melo Antunes             1975-1976 (+1999) military 
José (Manuel de) Medeiros Ferreira            1976-1977 (+2014) PS
Mário (Alberto Nobre Lopes) Soares            1977-1978 (+2017) PS
Vitor (Augusto Nunes) de Sá Machado           1978      (+2002) CDS
Carlos (Jorge Mendes) Corrêa Gago             1978
João (Carlos Lopes Cardoso) de Freitas Cruz   1978-1980         n/p
Diogo (Pinto de) Freitas do Amaral            1980-1981         CDS
André (Roberto Delaunay) Gonçalves Pereira    1981-1982         n/p
Vasco (Luis Caldeira Coelho) Futscher Pereira 1982-1983 (+1984) n/p
Jaime (José Matos da) Gama                    1983-1985         PS 
Pedro (José Rodrigues) Pires de Miranda       1985-1987 (+2015) PSD
João de Deus (Rogado Salvador) Pinheiro       1987-1992         PSD
José Manuel Durão Barroso                     1992-1995         PSD
Jaime (José Matos da) Gama                    1995-2002         PS
António (Manuel de Mendonça) Martins da Cruz  2002-2003         PS 
Maria Teresa (Pinto Basto) Patrício Gouveia   2003-2004         PSD
António (Victor Martins) Monteiro             2004-2005         n/p
Diogo (Pinto de) Freitas do Amaral            2005-2006         n/p
Luís (Filipe Marques) Amado                   2006-2011         PS
Paulo (de Sacadura Cabral) Portas             2011-2013         CDS-PP
Rui (Manuel Parente Chancerelle de) Machete   2013-2015         PSD
Augusto (Ernesto) Santos Silva                2015-             PS 

Ministers of Defence
Fernando dos Santos Costa                     1944-1958 (+1982) military
Júlio (Carlos Alves Dias) Botelho Moniz       1958-1961 (+1970) military
António de Oliveira Salazar                   1961-1962 (+1970) UN
Manuel Gomes de Araújo                        1962-1968 (+1982) military
Horácio (José) de Sá Viana Rebelo             1968-1973 (+1995) military
Joaquim (Moreira) da Silva Cunha              1973-1974         UN        
Mário Firmino Miguel                          1974      (+1991) military
Vasco (dos Santos) Gonçalves                  1974-1975 (+2005) military
 Victor (Manuel Rodrigues) Alves              1974-1975 (+2011) military (acting)
Silvano Ribeiro                               1975      (+2004) military
José (Baptista) Pinheiro de Azevedo           1975-1976 (+1983) military
Mário Firmino Miguel                          1976-1978 (+1991) military
José (Alberto) Loureiro dos Santos            1978-1980         military
Adelino (Manuel Lopes) Amaro da Costa         1980      (+1980) CDS
Luís (Aníbal de Sá) de Azevedo Coutinho       1981
Diogo (Pinto de) Freitas do Amaral            1981-1983         CDS
Carlos Alberto da Mota Pinto                  1983-1985 (+1985) PSD
Rui (Manuel Parente Chancerelle de) Machete   1985              PSD
Leonardo (Eugénio Ramos) Ribeiro de Almeida   1985-1987 (+2006) PSD
Eurico (da Silva Teixeira) de Melo            1987-1990 (+2012) PSD
Carlos (Eugénio Pereira) de Brito             1990              PSD
Joaquim Fernando Nogueira                     1990-1995         PSD
António (Jorge de) Figueiredo Lopes           1995              PSD
António (Manuel de Carvalho Ferreira) Vitorino1995-1997         PS
José Veiga Simão                              1997-1999 (+2014) PS
Jaime (José Matos da) Gama                    1999              PS
Júlio (de Lemos de) Castro Caldas             1999-2001         PSD, n/p
Rui (Eduardo Ferreira Rodrigues) Pena         2001-2002         PS
Paulo (Sacadura Cabral) Portas                2002-2005         CDS-PP
Luís (Filipe Marques) Amado                   2005-2006         PS
(Henrique) Nuno (Pires) Severiano Teixeira    2006-2009         PS
Augusto (Ernesto) Santos Silva                2009-2011         PS
José Pedro (Correia de) Aguiar-Branco         2011-2015         PSD
José (Alberto de) Azeredo Lopes               2015-             n/p

General Secretaries of PS
Mário (Alberto Nobre Lopes) Soares            1973-1986 (+2017)  
António de Almeida Santos                     1986      (+2016) (interim)     
Vítor (Manuel Ribeiro) Constâncio             1986-1988         
Jorge (Fernando Branco de) Sampaio            1988-1992         (interim to 1989)
António (Manuel de Oliveira) Guterres         1992-2002 
Eduardo (Luís Barreto) Ferro Rodrigues        2002-2004         
José Sócrates (Carvalho Pinto de Sousa)       2004-2011
António José (Martins) Seguro                 2011-2014
Maria de Belém Roseira (Martins Coelho)       2014              (acting) 
António (Luís Santos da) Costa                2014-                 

The PS was founded on 19 Apr 1973.


Leaders of PSD
Chairmen
Francisco (Manuel Lumbrales de) Sá Carneiro   1974-1978 (+1980) 
António (Luciano) de Sousa Franco             1978      (+2004) 
José (Manuel) Menéres (Sampaio) Pimentel      1978-1979 (+2014)        
Francisco (Manuel Lumbrales de) Sá Carneiro   1979-1980 (+1980)     
Francisco (José Pereira) Pinto Balsemão       1981-1983         
Nuno (Aires) Rodrigues dos Santos             1983-1984 (+1984)
Carlos Alberto da Mota Pinto                  1984-1985 (+1985) 
Rui (Manuel Parente Chancerelle de) Machete   1985              (interim) 
Aníbal (António) Cavaco Silva                 1985-1995 
Joaquim Fernando Nogueira                     1995-1996          
Marcelo (Nuno Duarte) Rebelo de Sousa         1996-1999        
José Manuel Durão Barroso                     1999-2004          
Pedro (Miguel de) Santana Lopes               2004-2005 
Luís Marques Mendes                           2005-2007         
Luís Filipe Menezes (Lopes)                   2007-2008
(Maria) Manuela (Dias) Ferreira Leite         2008-2010
Pedro (Manuel Mamede) Passos Coelho           2010-

General Secretaries
Francisco (Manuel Lumbrales de) Sá Carneiro   1974-1975 (+1980) 
Emídio Guerreiro                              1975      (+2005) 
Francisco (Manuel Lumbrales de) Sá Carneiro   1975-1976 (+1980) 
Joaquim (Jorge) Magalhães (Saraiva da) Mota   1976-1978 (+2007)
José Manuel (Ribeiro) Sérvulo Correia         1978
Amândio (Anes) de Azevedo                     1978-1979 
António (d'Orey) Capucho                      1979-1984         
Francisco Antunes da Silva                    1984-1985
Manuel (Joaquim) Dias Loureiro                1985-1990         
José (Bernardo Veloso) Falcão e Cunha         1990-1992 (+2009)
José Manuel Nunes Liberato                    1992-1995
Eduardo (Eugénio Castro e) Azevedo Soares     1995-1998 (+2010)
António (d'Orey) Capucho                      1998-1999         
Artur Torres Pereira                          1999
José Luís (Fazenda) Arnaut (Duarte)           1999-2004         
Miguel (Fernando Cassola de Miranda) Relvas   2004-2005         
Miguel (Bento Martins Costa de) Macedo        2005-2007
José (Agostinho) Ribau Esteves                2007-2008
Luís (Maria de Barros Serra) Marques Guedes   2008-2010
Miguel (Fernando Cassola de Miranda) Relvas   2010-2011
José (Manuel Marques) de Matos Rosa           2011-

The PSD, founded on 6 May 1974, was called People's Democratic Party (PPD) to 31 Oct 1976.


Chairmen of CDS-PP
Diogo (Pinto de) Freitas do Amaral            1974-1982          
Francisco (António) Lucas Pires               1983-1985 (+1998) 
Adriano (José Alves) Moreira                  1985-1988         
Diogo (Pinto de) Freitas do Amaral            1988-1991         
Manuel (Fernando da Silva) Monteiro           1992-1997         
Paulo (Sacadura Cabral) Portas                1997-2005        
José (Duarte de Almeida) Ribeiro e Castro     2005-2007
Paulo (Sacadura Cabral) Portas                2007-2016
Assunção Oliveira Cristas Machado da Graça    2016-                

The CDS, founded on 19 Jul 1974, acquired the label PP (CDS-PP) in 1994.


Leaders of PCP
General Secretaries
Alvaro (Barreirinhas) Cunhal                  1961-1992 (+2005) 
Carlos (Alberto do Vale Gomes) Carvalhas      1992-2004         
Jerónimo (Carvalho) de Sousa                  2004-             

Chairman
Carlos (Alberto do Vale Gomes) Carvalhas      1992-1996        

The PCP was founded in 1921.


Leaders of BE
Coordinators of the Political Commission
Francisco (Anacleto) Louçã                    2005-2012
Catarina (Soares) Martins + 
João (Pedro Furtado da Cunha) Semedo          2012-2014

Spokeswoman of the Standing Commission
Catarina (Soares) Martins                     2014-

The BE was founded on 24 Mar 1999.

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