Leaders of Somalia
(Federal Republic of Somalia)
[To the list of countries]
[To the ZPC Homepage]

Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website.

Note: the Somali Republic was born on July 1, 1960 as the merger of the State of Somaliland (previously, British Somaliland, independent on June 26, 1960) and the Italian Somalia. The Somali Democratic Republic was proclaimed on October 21, 1969. Since the overtrown of late president M. S. Barre in January 1991, no nationwide Government has been recognized by all factions. The then interim president based in Mogadishu, A. M. Mohamed, proclaimed the Somali Republic on July 21, 1991. The Federal Republic of Somalia was proclaimed on August 2, 2012.

Parties: SYL: Somali Youth League; SNL: Somali National League; SRSP: Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party; USC-SSA: United Somali Congress-Somali Salvation Alliance; USC-SNA: United Somali Congress-Somali National Alliance; SDM: Somali Democratic Movement; SSDF: Somali Salvation Democratic Front; SPM: Somali Patriotic Movement; ARS: Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia; PDP: Peace and Development Party; TPP: Tayo Political Party n/p: non-party


Heads of State
Presidents of the Republic
Aden Abdullah Osman Daar      1 Jul 1960 - 10 Jun 1967 (+2007) SYL (acting to 6 Jul 1961)
Abdirashid Ali Shermarke     10 Jun 1967 - 15 Oct 1969 (+1969) SYL 
Shaykh Moktar Mohamed Husayn 15 Oct 1969 - 21 Oct 1969 (+2012) SYL (acting)

Chairman of the Supreme Revolutionary Council
Mohamed Siyad Barre          21 Oct 1969 -  1 Jul 1976 (+1995) military

Presidents of the Republic
Mohamed Siyad Barre           1 Jul 1976 - 27 Jan 1991 (+1995) SRSP
Ali Mahdi Mohamed            29 Jan 1991 -  3 Jan 1997         USC-SSA (1)

Interim presidents in rebellion
Mohamed Farah Hassan Aydid   15 Jun 1995 -  1 Aug 1996 (+1996) USC-SNA
Husayn Mohamed Farah Aydid    2 Aug 1996 - 20 Mar 1998         USC-SNA

National Salvation Council (NSC)  
                              3 Jan 1997 -  ...                (2)

Presidents of the Republic
Abdullahi Derow Isaq         22 Aug 2000 - 27 Aug 2000 (+2006) n/p (acting) (3)
Abdiqassim Salad Hassan      27 Aug 2000 - 14 Oct 2004         n/p (transitional) (4)
Abdullahi Yussuf Ahmad       14 Oct 2004 - 29 Dec 2008 (+2012) SSDF  
Aden Mohamed Nur Madobe      29 Dec 2008 - 31 Jan 2009         (acting)
Shaykh Sharif Shaykh Ahmad   31 Jan 2009 - 20 Aug 2012         ARS
Muse Hassan Shaykh Abdulle   20 Aug 2012 - 28 Aug 2012         n/p (acting, interim) (5)
Mohamed Osman Jawari         28 Aug 2012 - 16 Sep 2012         n/p (acting) (5)
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud        16 Sep 2012 - 16 Feb 2017         PDP
Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed    16 Feb 2017 -                     TPP 

(1) Ali Mahdi Mohamed was interim president to 21 Jul 1991, being officially installed on 18 Aug 1991 but unrecognized by some faction leaders, notably by Aydid's USC-SNA.

(2) On 3 Jan 1997 a multi-faction National Salvation Council was set up, comprising 41 members with a collective chairmanship of five; they were: Ali Mahdi Mohamed (USC-SSA); Osman Hassan Ali Ato (USC-SNA, dissident faction); Abdulkadir Mohamed Aden Zoppo (SDM, +2002); Abdullahi Yussuf Ahmad (SSDF); and Aden Abdullahi Nur Gabiyow (SPM). Exact tenure of this Council is ignored, as ended up in failure.

(3) Abdullahi Derow Isaq was cting president as speaker of the Transitional National Assembly (TNA) convened in Djibouti.

(4) Abdiqassim Salad Hassan was president of the Republic and head of the Transitional National Government (TNG), in Djibouti exile to 14 Oct 2000 and with proclaimed authority over all the country, but not recognized by several armed factions and autonomous administrations outside Mogadishu -none of them recognized abroad- notably: the Republic of Somaliland (self-proclaimed 18 May 1991); the Puntland State of Somalia (self-proclaimed 23 Jul 1998); the multifactional counter-government Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council (SRRC, organized 26 Mar 2001); and the State of Southwestern Somalia (self-proclaimed 1 Abr 2002).

(5) Pending the election of the President of the Republic, the chairman of the new Federal Parliament became acting president.


Heads of Government
Prime Ministers
Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal     26 Jun 1960 - 12 Jul 1960 (+2002) SNL
Abdirashid Ali Shermarke      12 Jul 1960 - 14 Jun 1964 (+1969) SYL
Abdirizak Haji Husayn         14 Jun 1964 - 15 Jul 1967 (+2014) SYL (acting to 27 Sep 1964) 
Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal     15 Jul 1967 -  1 Nov 1969 (+2002) SYL
Mohamed Siyad Barre            1 Nov 1969 -    Mar 1970 (+1995) military
Mohamed Ali Samatar            1 Feb 1987 -  3 Sep 1990 (+2016) SRSP
Mohamed Hawadle Madar          3 Sep 1990 - 24 Jan 1991         SRSP
Umar Arteh Ghalib             24 Jan 1991 -  3 Jan 1997         USC 

Heads of the Transitional National Government (TNG)
Ali Khalif Galaid              8 Oct 2000 - 28 Oct 2001         n/p 
Osman Jama Ali                28 Oct 2001 - 12 Nov 2001         n/p (acting)
Hassan Abshir Farah           12 Nov 2001 -  8 Dec 2003         n/p 
Mohamed Abdi Yussuf            8 Dec 2003 -  3 Nov 2004         n/p 

Heads of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG)
Ali Mohamed Ghedi              3 Nov 2004 - 29 Oct 2007         n/p
Salim Aliyow Ibrow            29 Oct 2007 - 24 Nov 2007         n/p (acting)
Nur Hassan Husayn             24 Nov 2007 - 14 Feb 2009         n/p
Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke 14 Feb 2009 - 24 Sep 2010         n/p
Abdiwahid Elmi Gonjeh         24 Sep 2010 -  1 Nov 2010         n/p (acting)
Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed      1 Nov 2010 - 19 Jun 2011         n/p
Abdiweli Mohamed Ali          19 Jun 2011 - 20 Aug 2012         n/p (acting to 28 Jun 2011)

Prime Ministers (heads of the Federal Government
Abdiweli Mohamed Ali          20 Aug 2012 - 17 Oct 2012         n/p
Abdi Farah Shirdon            17 Oct 2012 - 21 Dec 2013         n/p
Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed         21 Dec 2013 - 24 Dec 2014         n/p
Omar Abdirashid Ali Shermarke 24 Dec 2014 -  1 Mar 2017         n/p
Hassan Ali Khaire              1 Mar 2017 -                     n/p

[To the list of countries] [To the ZPC Homepage]


ZPC homepage© Copyright ZPC, Roberto Ortiz de Zárate, 1996-2017
URL of this page: http://zarate.eu/somalia.htm | E-mail: zpc@zarate.eu