Leaders of East Timor
(Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste)
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Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website.

Parties and organizations: APODETI: Popular Democratic Association of Timor; CNRM: National Council of Maubere Resistance (pre-independence political umbrella organisation); CNRT: National Council of Timorese Resistance (CNRM name since 1998, dissolved in 2001); CNRT: National Congress for Reconstruction of Timor (party, 2007); FALINTIL: Armed Forces of National Liberation of East Timor; Frenti-Mudança: Front for National Reconstruction of Timor-Leste - Change; FRETILIN: Revolutionary Front of an Independent East Timor; PD: Democratic Party; PSD: Social Democratic Party; UDT: Timorese Democratic Union n/p: non-party


Presidents of the Republic
Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão      20 May 2002 - 20 May 2007         n/p
José Ramos-Horta            20 May 2007 - 20 May 2012         n/p
 Vicente da Silva Guterres  11 Feb 2008 - 13 Feb 2008         CNRT (acting for Ramos-Horta)
 Fernando de Araújo         13 Feb 2008 - 17 Apr 2008 (+2015) PD (acting for Ramos-Horta)
Taur Matan Ruak             20 May 2012 -                     n/p

Prime Ministers
Marí Bim Amude Alkatiri     20 May 2002 - 26 Jun 2006         FRETILIN
José Ramos-Horta            26 Jun 2006 - 19 May 2007         n/p (acting to 10 Jul 2006) 
Estanislau da Silva         19 May 2007 -  8 Aug 2007         FRETILIN 
Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão       8 Aug 2007 - 16 Feb 2015         CNRT
Rui Maria de Araújo         16 Feb 2015 -                     FRETILIN

Chairmen of the National Parliament
Francisco Lú-Olo Guterres   20 May 2002 - 30 Jul 2007         FRETILIN
Fernando de Araújo          30 Jul 2007 - 30 Jul 2012 (+2015) PD
Vicente da Silva Guterres   30 Jul 2012 -                     CNRT

Ministers of Foreign Affairs
José Ramos-Horta            20 May 2002 - 14 Jul 2006         n/p
José Luís Guterres          14 Jul 2006 - 19 May 2007         FRETILIN
Adalgisa Magno Guterres     19 May 2007 -  8 Aug 2007         (acting)
Zacarias Albano da Costa     8 Aug 2007 -  8 Aug 2012         PSD
José Luís Guterres           8 Aug 2012 - 16 Feb 2015         Frenti-Mudança
Hernâni Coelho              16 Feb 2015 - 

Pre-independence rulers (1975-2002)
Presidents of the Democratic Republic of East Timor (*)
Francisco Xavier do Amaral  28 Nov 1975 -    Sep 1978 (+2012) FRETILIN
Nicolau dos Reis Lobato        Sep 1978 - 31 Dec 1978 (+1978) FRETILIN (acting)

Head of Government of the Democratic Republic of East Timor (*)
Nicolau dos Reis Lobato     28 Nov 1975 - 31 Dec 1978 (+1978) FRETILIN

President of the Provisional Government (pro-Indonesian)
Arnaldo dos Reis Araújo     17 Dec 1975 - 17 Jul 1976 (+1988) APODETI

Governors of the Indonesian province of East Timor
Arnaldo dos Reis Araújo            1976 -        1978 (+1988)
Guilherme Maria Gonçalves          1978 -        1982 (+1999)
Mário Viegas Carrascalão           1982 - 11 Sep 1992          
Abilio José Osório Soares   11 Sep 1992 -    Oct 1999 (+2007)              

Head of the UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAES) (**)
Sérgio Vieira de Mello      25 Oct 1999 - 20 May 2002 (+2003) 

Chief Minister of the II Transitional Government
Marí Bim Amude Alkatiri     20 Sep 2001 - 20 May 2002         FRETILIN
(*) Self-proclaimed republic, in rebellion against the Indonesian occupation from 7 Dec 1975. The territory was annexed by Indonesia on 17 Jul 1976.
(**) UNTAES was given the military command over the territory from the International Force in East Timor (INTERFET) on 23 Feb 2000. INTERFET took the military control from Indonesian militias and Army between 20 and 27 Sep 1999.
(Source: Rulers, by Ben Schemmel)

Leaders of CNRM and CNRT (1987-2001)
President of the CNRM
Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão       1 Jan 1988 - 27 Apr 1998         n/p

Special Representative of the CNRM
José Ramos-Horta                   1991 - 27 Apr 1998         n/p

President of the CNRT
Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão      27 Apr 1998 -  9 Jun 2001         n/p

Vicepresidents of the CNRT
José Ramos-Horta            27 Apr 1998 -  9 Jun 2001         n/p
Mário Viegas Carrascalão    27 Apr 1998 -  9 Jun 2001         UDT/PSD

The CNRM was launched on 1 Jan 1988 as a multi-party national platform of the Timorese resistance. On 27 Apr 1998 it was replaced by the CNRT, which subsequently was disbanded on 9 Jun 2001 after being constitued (15 Jul 2000) the first Transitional Government of East Timor.


Commanders-in-Chief of FALINTIL
Nicolau dos Reis Lobato     20 Aug 1975 - 31 Dec 1978 (+1978)    
Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão         Mar 1981 - 20 Nov 1992         
Manecas Mau Huno               Nov 1992 -    Apr 1993      
Nino Konis Santana             Apr 1993 - 11 Mar 1998 (+1998)    
Taur Matan Ruak                Mar 1998 -  1 Feb 2001          

The FALINTIL were founded on 20 Aug 1975 as the military arm of the FRETILIN party. When the CNRM was established in 1988, the FALINTIL were declared their non-partisan military branch. The FALINTIL were disbanded on 1 Feb 2001 to become the core of the new East Timor National Defence force, to operate under UN control until the independence.


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