Leaders of Syria
(Syrian Arab Republic)
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Parties and organizations: ALM: Arab Liberation Movement Baath: Socialist Arab Rebirth Party FSA: Free Syrian Army HI: Independence Party HIWBS: Movement for Justice and Development in Syria HJ: Republican Party HS: People's Party HSDS: Syrian Democratic People's Party HSQ: Syrian National Party KD: Democratic Bloc KW: National Bloc NCSROF: National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces SNC: Syrian National Council

Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website.


Heads of the State
President of the Republic
Shukri al-Quwwatli              17 Aug 1943 - 30 Mar 1949 (+1968) KW

Chairmen of the Supreme Military Council 
Husni al-Zaim                   30 Mar 1949 - 26 Jun 1949 (+1949) military
Muhammad Sami Hilmi al-Hinnawi  14 Aug 1949 - 15 Aug 1949 (+1950) military

President of the Republic (*)
Hashim Bay Khalid al-Atassi     15 Aug 1949 -  2 Dec 1951 (+1960) KW

Chairman of the Supreme Military Council 
Adib ash-Shishakli               2 Dec 1951 -  3 Dec 1951 (+1964) military

Presidents of the Republic
Fawzi as-Silu                    3 Dec 1951 - 11 Jul 1953 (+1972) military 
Adib ash-Shishakli              11 Jul 1953 - 25 Feb 1954 (+1964) military/ALM	
Maamun Shafiq al-Kuzbari        26 Feb 1954 - 28 Feb 1954 (+1998) n/p (acting)
Hashim Bay Khalid al-Atassi     28 Feb 1954 -  6 Sep 1955 (+1960) KW
Shukri al-Quwwatli               6 Sep 1955 - 22 Feb 1958 (+1968) HSQ

United Arab Republic (**)       22 Feb 1958 - 29 Sep 1961

Prime Ministers acting as heads of State
Maamun Shafiq al-Kuzbari        29 Sep 1961 - 20 Nov 1961 (+1998) n/p (acting)
Izzat an-Nuss                   14 Dec 1961 - 14 Dec 1961         military (acting)

President of the Republic
Nazim al-Qudsi                  14 Dec 1961 -  8 Mar 1963 (+1998) HS

Chairmen of the National Revolutionary Command Council
Louai al-Atassi                  9 Mar 1963 - 27 Jul 1963 (+2003) military/Baath
Muhammad Amin al-Hafiz          27 Jul 1963 - 13 May 1964 (+2009) military/Baath 

Chairman of the Presidential Council
Muhammad Amin al-Hafiz          13 May 1964 - 25 Feb 1966 (+2009) military/Baath

Heads of State
Nur ad-Din Mustafa al-Atassi    25 Feb 1966 - 18 Nov 1970 (+1992) Baath
Ahmad al-Hasan al-Khatib        18 Nov 1970 - 22 Feb 1971 (+1982) Baath        
Abu Sulayman Hafiz al-Assad     22 Feb 1971 - 14 Mar 1971 (+2000) military/Baath

Presidents of the Republic
Abu Sulayman Hafiz al-Assad     14 Mar 1971 - 10 Jun 2000 (+2000) Baath
Abdul Halim Khaddam             10 Jun 2000 - 17 Jul 2000         Baath (acting)
Bashar al-Assad                 17 Jul 2000 -                     Baath

(*) Prime minister to 19 Aug 1949 and president of the Republic since 5 Sep 1950.
(**) Syria was a founding component of the United Arab Republic (UAR) along with Egypt in this period.

Heads of Government
Prime Ministers
Faris al-Khouri                 14 Oct 1944 -  1 Oct 1945 (+1962) KW
Saadallah al-Jabiri              1 Oct 1945 - 16 Dec 1946 (+1947) HI
Khalid al-Azm                   16 Dec 1946 - 29 Dec 1946 (+1965) KW
Jamil Mardam Bey                29 Dec 1946 - 17 Dec 1948 (+1960) HJ
Khalid al-Azm                   17 Dec 1948 - 30 Mar 1949 (+1965) KW
Husni al-Zaim                   17 Apr 1949 - 26 Jun 1949 (+1949) military
Muhsin al-Berazi                26 Jun 1949 - 14 Aug 1949 (+1949) n/p
Hashim Bay Khalid al-Atassi     17 Aug 1949 - 24 Dec 1949 (+1960) KW
Nazim al-Qudsi                  24 Dec 1949 - 27 Dec 1949 (+1998) HS
Khalid al-Azm                   27 Dec 1949 -  4 Jun 1950 (+1965) KW
Nazim al-Qudsi                   4 Jun 1950 - 27 Mar 1951 (+1998) HS
Khalid al-Azm                   27 Mar 1951 -  9 Aug 1951 (+1965) KD
Hassan al-Hakim                  9 Aug 1951 - 13 Nov 1951 (+1988)   
Zaki al-Khatib                  13 Nov 1951 - 28 Nov 1951          (acting)
Maaruf ad-Dawalibi              28 Nov 1951 - 29 Nov 1951 (+2004) HS      
Fawzi as-Silu                    3 Dec 1951 - 19 Jul 1953 (+1972) military  
Adib ash-Shishakli              19 Jul 1953 -  1 Mar 1954 (+1964) military/ALM  
Sabri al-Assali                  1 Mar 1954 - 18 Jun 1954 (+1976) HSQ  
Said al-Ghazzi                  18 Jun 1954 -  3 Nov 1954 (+1967) n/p     
Faris al-Khouri                  3 Nov 1954 - 13 Feb 1955 (+1962) HS
Sabri al-Assali                 13 Feb 1955 - 13 Sep 1955 (+1976) HSQ  
Said al-Ghazzi                  13 Sep 1955 - 14 Jun 1956 (+1967) n/p
Sabri al-Assali                 14 Jun 1956 -  6 Mar 1958 (+1976) HSQ  

Chairmen of the Executive Council of the Northern (Syrian) Region of the United Arab Republic
Nur ad-Din Kuhala                7 Oct 1958 - 20 Sep 1960         Baath, n/p
Abdul Hamid Sarraj              20 Sep 1960 - 16 Aug 1961 (+2013) military

Prime Ministers
Maamun Shafiq al-Kuzbari        28 Sep 1961 - 20 Nov 1961 (+1998) n/p
Izzat an-Nuss                   20 Nov 1961 - 14 Dec 1961         military  
Maaruf ad-Dawalibi              22 Dec 1961 - 28 Mar 1962 (+2004) HS  
Ahmad Bashir al-Azmah           16 Apr 1962 - 14 Sep 1962 (+1992)         
Khalid al-Azm                   17 Sep 1962 -  9 Mar 1963 (+1965) n/p
Salah ad-Din Bitar               9 Mar 1963 - 12 Nov 1963 (+1980) Baath
Muhammad Amin al-Hafiz          12 Nov 1963 - 13 May 1964 (+2009) military/Baath
Salah ad-Din Bitar              13 May 1964 -  3 Oct 1964 (+1980) Baath
Muhammad Amin al-Hafiz           4 Oct 1964 - 23 Sep 1965 (+2009) military/Baath
Yussuf Zuaiyin                  23 Sep 1965 - 21 Dec 1965 (+2016) Baath 
Salah ad-Din Bitar               1 Jan 1966 - 23 Feb 1966 (+1980) Baath 
Yussuf Zuaiyin                  25 Feb 1966 - 29 Oct 1968 (+2016) Baath 
Nur ad-Din Mustafa al-Atassi    29 Oct 1968 - 21 Nov 1970 (+1992) Baath 
Abu Sulayman Hafiz al-Assad     21 Nov 1970 -  3 Apr 1971 (+2000) military/Baath
Abdul Rahman Khleifawi           3 Apr 1971 - 21 Dec 1972         Baath 
Mahmoud al-Ayyubi               21 Dec 1972 -  7 Aug 1976         Baath 
Abdul Rahman Khleifawi           7 Aug 1976 - 27 Mar 1978         Baath
Muhammad Ali al-Halabi          27 Mar 1978 -  9 Jan 1980         Baath
Abdul Rauf al-Kasm               9 Jan 1980 -  1 Nov 1987         Baath
Mahmoud al-Zuabi                 1 Nov 1987 - 13 Mar 2000 (+2000) Baath
Muhammad Mustafa Miro           13 Mar 2000 - 10 Sep 2003         Baath
Muhammad Naji al-Otari          10 Sep 2003 - 14 Apr 2011         Baath
Adel Safar                      14 Apr 2011 - 26 Jun 2012         Baath
Riyad Farid Hijab               26 Jun 2012 -  6 Aug 2012         Baath
Omar Ghalawanji                  6 Aug 2012 - 11 Aug 2012         Baath (acting)
Wael Nader al-Halqi             11 Aug 2012 -  3 Jul 2016         Baath
Imad Khamis                      3 Jul 2016 -                     Baath

Governments and organizations in rebellion
Free Syrian Army (FSA) (formed 29 Jul 2011)

Commander-in-chief
Col. Riad al-Asaad        29 Jul 2011 -             military

Chiefs of Staff of the Supreme Military Council
Gen. Salim Idris           8 Dec 2012 - 16 Feb 2014 military
Gen. Abdul Ilah al-Bashir 16 Feb 2014 -    Oct 2014 military
Gen. Albay Ahmad Berri       Oct 2014 -    Dec 2014 military
Gen. Abdul Karim al-Ahmad    Dec 2014 -             military (disputed by the NCSROF from Jul 2015)


Syrian National Council (SNC) (formed 23 Aug 2011, Istanbul-based, member of NCSROF)

Chairmen
Burhan Ghalioun           29 Aug 2011 – 10 Jun 2012 n/p
Abdul Baset Sieda         10 Jun 2012 -  9 Nov 2012 n/p
George Sabra               9 Nov 2012 -             HSDS   


National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces (NCSROF) (formed 11 Nov 2012, Idlib-based)

Chairmen
Moaz Al-Khatib            11 Nov 2012 – 22 Apr 2013 n/p
George Sabra              22 Apr 2013 –  6 Jul 2013 HSDS/SNC (acting)
Ahmad al-Jarba             6 Jul 2013 –  9 Jul 2014 SNC
Hadi al-Bahra              9 Jul 2014 –  4 Jan 2015 n/p
Khaled Khoja               4 Jan 2015 -  5 Mar 2016 n/p
Anas al-Abdah              5 Mar 2016 -             HIWBS

Prime Ministers 
Ghassan Hitto             18 Mar 2013 – 14 Sep 2013 n/p
Ahmad Touma               14 Sep 2013 - 16 May 2016 n/p
Jawad Abu Hatab           16 May 2016 -             n/p


Islamic State (Caliphate proclaimed 29 Jun 2014, Raqqah-headquartered)

Caliph
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi      29 Jun 2014 -             

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