Leaders of Czechoslovakia
(Czechoslovak Socialist / Federal Republic, 1948-1990
Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, 1990-1992)
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Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website. Also visit a detailed page on Czechoslovak Governments from 1988 to 1992 to know more about the ruling parties. For data since 1 Jan 1993, see the Czech and Slovak republics.

Parties: CSNS: Czechoslovak National Socialist Party (since 1948 Czechoslovak Socialist Party, CSS, member of the KSC-led National Front); KSC: Communist Party of Czechoslovakia; CSL: Czechoslovak People's Party (member of the National Front since 1948); CSDSD: Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party of Workers (merged into KSC in Jun 1948; renewed as Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party (CSSD) in Mar 1990; ODS: Civic Democratic Party; OF: Civic Forum; VPN: Public Against Violence; ODU-VPN: Civic Democratic Union; KDH: Christian Democratic Movement; HZDS: Movement for a Democratic Slovakia; SDSS: Social Democratic Party of Slovakia; OH: Civic Movement; DS: Democratic Party; n/p: non-party


Presidents of the Republic
Edvard Benes         3 Apr 1945 -  7 Jun 1948 (+1948) CSNS (1)
Klement Gottwald     7 Jun 1948 - 14 Mar 1953 (+1953) KSC (acting to 14 Jun 1948)
Antonín Zápotocký   14 Mar 1953 - 13 Nov 1957 (+1957) KSC (acting to 21 Mar 1953)
Víliám Siroký       13 Nov 1957 - 19 Nov 1957 (+1971) KSC (acting) 
Antonín Novotný     19 Nov 1957 - 22 Mar 1968 (+1975) KSC
Jozef Lénart        22 Mar 1968 - 30 Mar 1968 (+2004) KSC (acting)
Ludvík Svoboda      30 Mar 1968 - 29 May 1975 (+1979) KSC
Gustáv Husák        29 May 1975 - 10 Dec 1989 (+1991) KSC
Marián Calfa        10 Dec 1989 - 29 Dec 1989         KSC (acting)
Václav Havel        29 Dec 1989 - 20 Jul 1992 (+2011) OF (2)
Jan Stráský         20 Jul 1992 - 31 Dec 1992         ODS (acting)

(1) Benes was a member of CSNS only from 1923 to 1935.
(2) In Apr 1991 OF split into ODS, the Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA) and the Civic Movement (OH).


Prime Ministers
Jan Srámek          21 Jul 1940 -  4 Apr 1945 (+1956) CSL (3)
Zdenek Fierlinger    4 Apr 1945 -  3 Jul 1946 (+1976) CSDSD
Klement Gottwald     3 Jul 1946 - 15 Jun 1948 (+1953) KSC
Antonín Zápotocký   15 Jun 1948 - 21 Mar 1953 (+1957) KSC
Víliám Siroký       21 Mar 1953 - 22 Sep 1963 (+1971) KSC
Jozef Lénart        22 Sep 1963 -  4 Apr 1968 (+2004) KSC
Oldrich Cerník       4 Apr 1968 - 28 Jan 1970 (+1994) KSC
Lubomír Strougal    28 Jan 1970 - 11 Oct 1988         KSC
Ladislav Adamec     11 Oct 1988 - 10 Dec 1989 (+2007) KSC 
Marián Calfa        10 Dec 1989 -  1 Jul 1992         KSC, VPN, ODU-VPN (4)
Jan Stráský          1 Jul 1992 - 31 Dec 1992         ODS

(3) Prime minister of the London-based Government in exile.
(4) On 18 Jan 1990 M. Calfa left the KSC to join VPN, the Slovak partner of the Czech-based OF. Following the desintegration of VPN in Apr 1991 he became a leading member of ODU-VPN.


Leaders of the KSC
General Secretaries
Klement Gottwald    23 Feb 1929 -    Apr 1945 (+1953) 
Rudolf Slanský         Apr 1945 -  6 Sep 1951 (+1952)

Chairmen
Klement Gottwald       Mar 1946 - 14 Mar 1953 (+1953)  
Antonín Novotný     14 Mar 1953 -  5 Sep 1953 (+1975)   

First Secretaries
Antonín Novotný      5 Sep 1953 -  5 Jan 1968 (+1975) 
Alexander Dubcek     5 Jan 1968 - 17 Apr 1969 (+1992)
Gustáv Husák        17 Apr 1969 - 29 May 1971 (+1991) 

General Secretaries
Gustáv Husák        29 May 1971 - 17 Dec 1987 (+1991) 
Milos Jakes         17 Dec 1987 - 24 Nov 1989         
Karel Urbánek       24 Nov 1989 - 20 Dec 1989          

Chairman
Ladislav Adamec     20 Dec 1989 -  1 Sep 1990 (+2007) 

Ministers of Foreign Affairs
Jan Masaryk         1945-1948 (+1948) n/p
Vladimír Clementis  1948-1950 (+1952) KSC
Víliám Siroký       1950-1953 (+1971) KSC
Václav David        1953-1968 (+1996) KSC
Jirí Hájek          1968      (+1993) KSC
Oldrich Cerník      1968      (+1994) KSC (acting)
Václav Pleskot      1968      (+2012) KSC (acting)
Ján Marko           1969-1971         KSC
Bohuslav Chnoupek   1971-1988 (+2004) KSC
Jaromír Johanes     1988-1989         KSC
Jirí Dienstbier     1989-1992 (+2011) OF, OH
Jozef Moravcík      1992              HZDS

(List courtesy of Michal Kubálek)


Chairmen of the Parliament
National Assembly
Josef David         1945-1946 (+1968) CSNS
Antonín Zápotocký   1946      (+1957) KSC
Josef David         1946-1948 (+1968) CSNS
Oldrich John        1948-1953 (+1961) KSC
Zdenek Fierlinger   1953-1964 (+1976) KSC
Bohuslav Lastovicka 1964-1968 (+1981) KSC
Josef Smrkovský     1968-1969 (+1974) KSC

Federal Assembly
Peter Colotka       1969              SC
Alexandr Dubcek     1969      (+1992) KSC          
Dalibor Hanes       1969-1971 (+2007) KSC
Alois Indra         1971-1989 (+1990) KSC
Stanislav Kukrál    1989      (+2003) n/p 
Alexander Dubcek    1989-1992 (+1992) VPN, SDSS (5)
Michal Kovác        1992      (+2016) HZDS

(5) Dubcek was member of VPN until the its desintegration in Apr 1991. In Mar 1992 he joined and became chairman of the party SDSS (see Czech Republic).
(List courtesy of Michal Kubálek)


Premiers of the Czech Republic
Stanislav Rázl      1969      (+1999) KSC
Josef Kempný        1969-1970 (+1996) KSC
Josef Korcák        1970-1987 (+2008) KSC
Ladislav Adamec     1987-1988 (+2007) KSC
Frantisek Pitra     1988-1990         KSC
Petr Pithart        1990-1992         OF, OH              
Václav Klaus        1992-1993         ODS

 --> Continuing to Czech Republic

(List courtesy of Michal Kubálek)


Premiers of the Slovak Republic
Stefan Sádovský     1969      (+1984) KSC
Peter Colotka       1969-1988         KSC
Ivan Knotek         1988-1989         KSC
Pavol Hrivnák       1989      (+1995) KSC
Milán Cic           1989-1990 (+2012) KSC, VPN
Vladimír Meciar     1990-1991         VPN
Ján Carnogurský     1991-1992         KDH
Vladimír Meciar     1992-1993         HZDS

 --> Continuing to Slovak Republic

(List courtesy of Michal Kubálek)


Chairmen of the Czech National Council
Cestmír Císar       1968-1969 (+2013) KSC
Evzen Erban         1969-1981 (+1994) KSC
Josef Kempný        1981-1989 (+1996) KSC
Jaroslav Safarík    1989-1990         CSS
Dagmar Buresová     1990-1992         OF, OH
Milan Uhde          1992-1993         ODS 

 --> Continuing to Czech Republic

(List courtesy of Michal Kubálek)


Chairmen of the Slovak National Council
Jozef Lettrich      1945-1948 (+1968) DS
Karol Smidke        1948-1950 (+1952) KSC
Frantisek Kubac     1950-1958 (+1958) KSC
Ludovít Benada      1958-1960 (+1973) KSC
Rudolf Strechaj     1960-1962 (+1962) KSC
Jozef Lénart        1962-1963 (+2004) KSC
Michal Chudík       1963-1968 (+2005) KSC
Ondrej Klokoc       1968-1975 (+1975) KSC
Viliam Salgovic     1975-1989 (+1990) KCC
Rudolf Schuster     1989-1990         KSC, n/p
Frantisek Miklosko  1990-1992         VPN, KDH
Ivan Gasparovic     1992-1993         HZDS

 --> Continuing to Slovak Republic

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