Leaders of the European Communities
and the European Union
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Historical development: There were three European Communities: European Coal and Steel Community (Treaty of Paris signed on April 18, 1951, in force on July 23, 1952, expired on July 23, 2002), European Economic Community (Treaty of Rome signed on March 25, 1957, in force on January 1, 1958) and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom Treaty signed on March 25, 1957, in force on January 1, 1958). The Communities were combined by the Merger Treaty, or Brussels Treaty, signed on April 8, 1965, in force on July 1, 1967 and expired on May 1, 1999 (upon entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam). On November 1, 1993, upon entry into force of the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty), the Communities became the so-called first pillar of the new European Union , while the European Economic Community was renamed to European Community. Upon entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on December 1, 2009, the European Community and the European Union were merged, being the latter the legal successor to the former.

Organizational acronyms: CFSP: Common Foreign and Security Policy ECB: European Central Bank ECSC: High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community EEC: European Economic Community EMI: European Monetary Institute Euratom: European Atomic Energy Community; FASP: Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

Look for biographies of the leaders (in Spanish) at CIDOB website.

See also the 28 Member States: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden and the United Kingdom


European Commission
Presidents
Walter Hallstein          31 Jan 1958 - 30 Jun 1967 (†1982) Germany
Jean Rey                   1 Jul 1967 -  1 Jul 1970 (†1983) Belgium
Franco Maria Malfatti      2 Jul 1970 - 22 Mar 1972 (†1991) Italy
Sicco Mansholt            22 Mar 1972 -  5 Jan 1973 (†1995) Netherlands
François-Xavier Ortoli     9 Jan 1973 -  5 Jan 1977 (†2007) France
Roy Harris Jenkins        11 Jan 1977 -  5 Jan 1981 (†2003) United Kingdom
Gaston Thorn              12 Jan 1981 -  5 Jan 1985 (†2007) Luxembourg
Jacques Delors            15 Jan 1985 -  5 Jan 1995         France
Jacques Santer            24 Jan 1995 - 14 Jul 1999         Luxembourg (caretaker since 16 Mar 1999)
Manuel Marín González     14 Jul 1999 - 15 Sep 1999         Spain (acting) 
Romano Prodi              15 Sep 1999 - 22 Nov 2004         Italy
José Manuel Durão Barroso 22 Nov 2004 -  1 Nov 2014         Portugal
Jean-Claude Juncker        1 Nov 2014 -                     Luxembourg

First Vice Presidents
Margot Wallström          22 Nov 2004 – 9 Feb 2010          Sweden
Catherine Ashton           9 Feb 2010 - 1 Nov 2014          United Kingdom
Frans Timmermans           1 Nov 2014                       Netherlands

Presidents of the Parliament (*)
Common Assembly of the ECSC
Paul Henri Spaak          10 Sep 1952 - 11 May 1954 (†1972) Belgium
Alcide De Gasperi         11 May 1954 - 19 Aug 1954 (†1954) Italy
Giuseppe Pella            29 Nov 1954 - 27 Nov 1956 (†1981) Italy
Hans Furler               27 Nov 1956 - 19 Mar 1958 (†1975) Germany

European Parliamentary Assembly
Robert Schuman            19 Mar 1958 - 28 Mar 1960 (†1963) France
Hans Furler               28 Mar 1960 - 27 Mar 1962 (†1975) Germany

Appointed European Parliament
Gaetano Martino           27 Mar 1962 - 21 Mar 1964 (†1967) Italy
Jean-Pierre Duvieusart    21 Mar 1964 - 24 Sep 1965 (†1977) Belgium
Victor Leemans            24 Sep 1965 -  7 Mar 1966 (†1971) Belgium
Alain Poher                7 Mar 1966 - 11 Mar 1969 (†1996) France
Mario Scelba              11 Mar 1969 -  9 Mar 1971 (†1991) Italy
Walter Behrendt            9 Mar 1971 - 13 Mar 1973 (†1997) Germany
Cornelis Berkhouwer       13 Mar 1973 - 11 Mar 1975 (†1992) Netherlands
Georges Spénale           11 Mar 1975 -  8 Mar 1977 (†1983) France
Emilio Colombo             8 Mar 1977 - 17 Jul 1979 (†2013) Italy

Elected European Parliament
Simone Veil               17 Jul 1979 - 19 Jan 1982 (†2017) France
Piet Dankert              19 Jan 1982 - 24 Jul 1984 (†2003) Netherlands
Pierre Pflimlin           24 Jul 1984 - 20 Jan 1987 (†2000) France
Henry Plumb               20 Jan 1987 - 25 Jul 1989         United Kingdom
Enrique Barón Crespo      25 Jul 1989 - 14 Jan 1992         Spain
Egon Klepsch              14 Jan 1992 - 19 Jul 1994 (†2010) Germany
Klaus Hänsch              19 Jul 1994 - 14 Jan 1997         Germany
José María Gil-Robles     14 Jan 1997 - 20 Jul 1999         Spain
Nicole Fontaine           20 Jul 1999 - 15 Jan 2002         France
Patrick (Pat) Cox         15 Jan 2002 - 20 Jul 2004         Ireland 
Josep Borrell Fontelles   20 Jul 2004 - 16 Jan 2007         Spain
Hans-Gert Pöttering       16 Jan 2007 - 14 Jul 2009         Germany
Jerzy Buzek               14 Jul 2009 - 17 Jan 2012         Poland
Martin Schulz             17 Jan 2012 - 17 Jan 2017         Germany
Antonio Tajani            17 Jan 2017 -                     Italy  
(*) From 1952 to 1958 a Common Assembly existed as representative of the national parliaments of the ECSC's six constituent States. In 1958 the organ was upgraded to Parliamentary Assembly to cover the other two European Communities, the EEC and the Euratom. In 1962 it was renamed to the European Parliament.
Presidents-in-office of the Council
Council of the European Communities
Charles de Gaulle          1 Jan 1968 - 30 Jun 1968 (†1970) France
Mariano Rumor              1 Jul 1968 - 31 Dec 1968 (†1990) Italy
Pierre Werner              1 Jan 1969 - 30 Jun 1969 (†2002) Luxembourg
Piet de Jong               1 Jul 1969 - 31 Dec 1969         Netherlands
Gaston Eyskens             1 Jan 1970 - 30 Jun 1970 (†1988) Belgium
Willy Brandt               1 Jul 1970 - 31 Dec 1970 (†1992) Germany
Georges Pompidou           1 Jan 1971 - 30 Jun 1971 (†1974) France
Emilio Colombo             1 Jul 1971 - 31 Dec 1971 (†2013) Italy
Pierre Werner              1 Jan 1972 - 30 Jun 1972 (†2002) Luxembourg
Barend Biesheuvel          1 Jul 1972 - 31 Dec 1972 (†2001) Netherlands
Gaston Eyskens             1 Jan 1973 - 26 Jan 1973 (†1988) Belgium
Edmond Leburton           26 Jan 1973 - 30 Jun 1973 (†1997) Belgium
Anker Jørgensen            1 Jul 1973 - 18 Dec 1973         Denmark
Poul Hartling             18 Dec 1973 - 31 Dec 1973 (†2000) Denmark
Willy Brandt               1 Jan 1974 -  7 May 1974 (†1992) Germany
Walter Scheel              7 May 1974 - 16 May 1974         Germany
Helmut Schmidt            16 May 1974 - 30 Jun 1974         Germany
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing   1 Jul 1974 - 31 Dec 1974         France
Liam Cosgrave              1 Jan 1975 - 30 Jun 1975         Ireland
Aldo Moro                  1 Jul 1975 - 31 Dec 1975 (†1978) Italy
Gaston Thorn               1 Jan 1976 - 30 Jun 1976 (†2007) Luxembourg
Joop den Uyl               1 Jul 1976 - 31 Dec 1976 (†1987) Netherlands
James Callaghan            1 Jan 1977 - 30 Jun 1977 (†2005) United Kingdom
Léo Tindemans              1 Jul 1977 - 31 Dec 1977 (†2014) Belgium
Anker Jørgensen            1 Jan 1978 - 30 Jun 1978         Denmark
Helmut Schmidt             1 Jul 1978 - 31 Dec 1978         Germany
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing   1 Jan 1979 - 30 Jun 1979         France
Jack Lynch                 1 Jul 1979 - 11 Dec 1979 (†1999) Ireland
Charles Haughey           11 Dec 1979 - 31 Dec 1979 (†2006) Ireland
Francesco Cossiga          1 Jan 1980 - 30 Jun 1980 (†2010) Italy
Pierre Werner              1 Jul 1980 - 31 Dec 1980 (†2002) Luxembourg
Andries van Agt            1 Jan 1981 - 30 Jun 1981         Netherlands
Margaret Thatcher          1 Jul 1981 - 31 Dec 1981 (†2013) United Kingdom
Wilfried Martens           1 Jan 1982 - 30 Jun 1982 (†2013) Belgium
Anker Jørgensen            1 Jul 1982 - 10 Sep 1982         Denmark
Poul Schlüter             10 Sep 1982 - 31 Dec 1982         Denmark
Helmut Kohl                1 Jan 1983 - 30 Jun 1983         Germany
Andreas Papandreou         1 Jul 1983 - 31 Dec 1983 (†1996) Greece
François Mitterrand        1 Jan 1984 - 30 Jun 1984 (†1996) France
Garret FitzGerald          1 Jul 1984 - 31 Dec 1984 (†2011) Ireland
Bettino Craxi              1 Jan 1985 - 30 Jun 1985 (†2000) Italy
Jacques Santer             1 Jul 1985 - 31 Dec 1985         Luxembourg
Ruud Lubbers               1 Jan 1986 - 30 Jun 1986         Netherlands
Margaret Thatcher          1 Jul 1986 - 31 Dec 1986 (†2013) United Kingdom
Wilfried Martens           1 Jan 1987 - 30 Jun 1987 (†2013) Belgium
Poul Schlüter              1 Jul 1987 - 31 Dec 1987         Denmark
Helmut Kohl                1 Jan 1988 - 30 Jun 1988         Germany
Andreas Papandreou         1 Jul 1988 - 31 Dec 1988 (†1996) Greece
Felipe González Márquez    1 Jan 1989 - 30 Jun 1989         Spain
François Mitterrand        1 Jul 1989 - 31 Dec 1989 (†1996) France
Charles Haughey            1 Jan 1990 - 30 Jun 1990 (†2006) Ireland
Giulio Andreotti           1 Jul 1990 - 31 Dec 1990 (†2013) Italy
Jacques Santer             1 Jan 1991 - 30 Jun 1991         Luxembourg
Ruud Lubbers               1 Jul 1991 - 31 Dec 1991         [Netherlands
Aníbal Cavaco Silva        1 Jan 1992 - 30 Jun 1992         Portugal
Jonh Major                 1 Jul 1992 - 31 Dec 1992         United Kingdom
Poul Schlüter              1 Jan 1993 - 25 Jan 1993         Denmark
Poul Nyrup Rasmussen      25 Jan 1993 - 30 Jun 1993         Denmark
Jean-Luc Dehaene           1 Jul 1993 - 31 Oct 1993 (†2014) Belgium

European Council
Jean-Luc Dehaene           1 Nov 1993 - 31 Dec 1993 (†2014) Belgium
Andreas Papandreou         1 Jan 1994 - 30 Jun 1994 (†1996) Greece
Helmut Kohl                1 Jul 1994 - 31 Dec 1994         Germany
François Mitterrand        1 Jan 1995 - 17 May 1995 (†1996) France
Jacques Chirac            17 May 1995 - 30 Jun 1995         France
Felipe González Márquez    1 Jul 1995 - 31 Dec 1995         Spain
Lamberto Dini              1 Jan 1996 - 18 May 1996         Italy
Romano Prodi              18 May 1996 - 30 Jun 1996         Italy
John Bruton                1 Jul 1996 - 31 Dec 1996         Ireland
Wim Kok                    1 Jan 1997 - 30 Jun 1997         Netherlands
Jean-Claude Juncker        1 Jul 1997 - 31 Dec 1997         Luxembourg
Tony Blair                 1 Jan 1998 - 30 Jun 1998         United Kingdom
Viktor Klima               1 Jul 1998 - 31 Dec 1998         Austria
Gerhard Schröder           1 Jan 1999 - 30 Jun 1999         Germany
Paavo Lipponen             1 Jul 1999 - 31 Dec 1999         Finland
António Guterres           1 Jan 2000 - 30 Jun 2000         Portugal
Jacques Chirac             1 Jul 2000 - 31 Dec 2000         France
Göran Persson              1 Jan 2001 - 30 Jun 2001         Sweden
Guy Verhofstadt            1 Jul 2001 - 31 Dec 2001         Belgium
José María Aznar López     1 Jan 2002 - 30 Jun 2002         Spain
Anders Fogh Rasmussen      1 Jul 2002 - 31 Dec 2002         Denmark
Kostas Simitis             1 Jan 2003 - 30 Jun 2003         Greece
Silvio Berlusconi          1 Jul 2003 - 31 Dec 2003         Italy
Bertie Ahern               1 Jan 2004 - 30 Jun 2004         Ireland
Jean-Peter Balkenende      1 Jul 2004 - 31 Dec 2004         Netherlands
Jean-Claude Juncker        1 Jan 2005 - 30 Jun 2005         Luxembourg
Tony Blair                 1 Jul 2005 - 31 Dec 2005         United Kingdom
Wolfgang Schüssel          1 Jan 2006 - 30 Jun 2006         Austria
Matti Vanhanen             1 Jul 2006 - 31 Dec 2006         Finland
Angela Merkel              1 Jan 2007 - 30 Jun 2007         Germany
José Sócrates              1 Jul 2007 - 31 Dec 2007         Portugal
Janez Jansa                1 Jan 2008 - 30 Jun 2008         Slovenia
Nicolas Sarkozy            1 Jul 2008 - 31 Dec 2008         France
Mirek Topolánek            1 Jan 2009 -  9 Apr 2009         Czech Republic
Jan Fischer                9 Apr 2009 - 30 Jun 2009         Czech Republic
Fredrik Reinfeldt          1 Jul 2009 - 31 Dec 2009         Sweden

Presidents of the European Council
Herman Van Rompuy          1 Dec 2009 -  1 Dec 2014         Belgium
Donald Tusk                1 Dec 2014 -                     Poland

High Representative for CFSP (1999-2009)
Javier Solana Madariaga   18 Oct 1999 -  1 Dec 2009         Spain 

High Representatives of the Union for FASP
Catherine Ashton           1 Dec 2009 - 1 Nov 2014          United Kingdom
Federica Mogherini         1 Nov 2014 -                     Italy

Presidents of the EMI (1994-1998)
Alexandre Lamfalussy       1 Jan 1994 - 30 Jun 1997 (†2015) Belgium 
Wim Duisenberg             1 Jul 1997 - 31 May 1998 (†2005) Netherlands

Presidents of the ECB
Wim Duisenberg             1 Jun 1998 - 31 Oct 2003 (†2005) Netherlands
Jean-Claude Trichet        1 Nov 2003 -  1 Nov 2011         France
Mario Draghi               1 Nov 2011 -                     Italy

Presidents of the Eurogroup
Jean-Claude Juncker        1 Jan 2005 - 21 Jan 2013         Luxembourg
Jeroen Dijsselbloem       21 Jan 2013 -                     Netherlands

Presidents of the ECSC (1952-1967)
Jean Monnet               10 Aug 1952 -  1 Jun 1955 (†1979) France
René Mayer                 1 Jun 1955 -  7 Jan 1958 (†1972) France
Paul Finet                 7 Jan 1958 - 11 Sep 1959 (†1965) Belgium
Piero Malvestiti          11 Sep 1959 -  5 Nov 1963 (†1964) Italy
Dino Del Bo                5 Nov 1963 - 30 Jun 1967         Italy  

Presidents of the Commission of the Euratom (1958-1967)
Louis Armand               7 Jan 1958 -  2 Feb 1959 (†1971) France
Étienne Hirsch             2 Feb 1959 - 10 Jan 1962 (†1994) France
Pierre Chatenet           10 Jan 1962 - 30 Jun 1967 (†1997) France

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